Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (22)
Arterial Hypertension is defined as?
Elevation of Systolic BP?
Elevation of Diastolic BP?
SBP > 140
What is the "Silent Killer"? and Why?
Hypertension b/c it is often asymptomatic
90% of all cases
Onset ages 30-50
Causes are Unknown
Theories: weight, increased sodium intake, lifestyle, hereditary
10% of all cases
Onset > 50 years old
Identifiable Causes: pregnancy, cheese, burns, parathyroidism, oral contraceptive, kidney disease, beer/wine
Intermittent elevations of BP interspersed with NORMAL readings
What evaluation approach would the physician use with Borderline Hypertension? what is a problem with this approach?
Doctor will use the "watch and see" approach, but the problem is people do not always show up for their follow up
Marked elevation of diastolic > 140 associated with papilledema
**Sudden onset with rapid development of s/s
Uncomplicated hypertension of long duration
White Coat Hypertension
Patient has normal BP except when measurements are taken by a healthcare professional
Nonmodifiable Risk Factors are?
Family history, age, gender, ethnicity
Modifiable Risk Factors?
Stress, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity
Does smoking cause hypertension?
Smoking does not directly cause it, but it is a contributor b/c it causes vasoconstriction and it increases the risk for heart disease
120-139 / 80-89
Hypertensive Stage 1
140-159 / 90-99
Hypertensive Stage 2
>160 / >100
patients conventional BP remains uncontrolled by 3 classes of antihypertensive agents, including a diuretic
How is a medical diagnosis of hypertension made?
Based on 2+ accurate BP measurements taken during 2+ contacts with a healthcare professional
Diagnosis consists of?
Patient history, physical assessment, diagnostic tests, BP measurements
As a nurse what should you encourage?
Smoking cessation, exercise, weight loss, restriction of alcohol consumption (wine/beer)
What is the number one drug of choice for hypertension? Why?
Diuretics, b/c they pull fluid off of the heart
-Decrease blood volume, renal blood flow, and cardiac output