Musculoskeletal DISORDERS Flashcards Preview

Nursing > Musculoskeletal DISORDERS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Musculoskeletal DISORDERS Deck (98)
Loading flashcards...
1

Musculoskeletal Disorders

affect the human body's movement or musculoskeletal system

2

What are the causes of lower back pain?

-overactivity
-poor body mechanics
-obesity
-muscle strain
-bulging vertebral disc
-compression of sciatic nerve
-vertebral disc degeneration
-osteoporosis

3

What is the best way to diagnose lower back pain?

Signs and Symptoms

4

When is lower back pain considered acute?

< 3 months

5

When is lower back pain considered chronic?

> 3 months

6

What s/s are used to diagnose lower back pain?

-localized pain
-sciatica/radiculopathy
-muscle spasms
-paresthesia
-weakness
-abnormal reflexes

7

Sciatica

pain radiating through sciatic nerve from the back, through the buttocks, and down the leg
-from a pinched nerve

8

When are diagnostic exams used for lower back pain?

after 3-4 weeks

9

What diagnostic exams may be used for lower back pain?

-x-ray
-CT scan
-MRI
-bone scan
-EMG

10

What will an x-ray show?

fractures, dislocations, degeneration, and deformities

11

CT Scan

ruptured disc, spinal stenosis, vertebral damage

12

MRI

nerve/tissue/muscle/ligament damage

13

Bone Scan

infections, bone tumors

14

EMG

problems with spinal nerves

15

What conservative treatments are used for lower back pain?

-Relaxation techniques
-Physical therapy
-Pain meds

16

What pain medications are used for lower back pain?

-NSAIDS
-Muscle relaxers
-Topical Analgesics
-Narcotics
-Epidural Steroid injections

17

Epidural Steroid Injections

injection of a steroid around the membranous sac covering the spine to reduce inflammation

18

How often may an epidural steroid injection be given?

3 within a 6 month period

19

What are some side effects of epidural steroid injections?

-spinal headache, bleeding, or nerve damage
-may cause a weakening of spinal bones and closely related muscles

20

How should a person with lower back pain get out of bed?

Roll, keeping the back straight

21

What are two ways a person with lower back pain may lay down?

-lateral lying "curled" position
-using pillows while on back to elevate head 30 degrees and help flex the knees

22

What should you tell the patient with lower back pain about resuming activities?

-resume slowly as pain decreases
-avoid activities w/ excessive strain on back
-reduce weight if needed

23

When may a person with lower back pain require surgery?

-if pain becomes severe
-lasts longer than 6-12 weeks
-ability to function is affected

24

Micro-discectomy

relieves the pressure on the spinal nerve root by removing the material causing the pain

25

Laminectomy

removal of a small portion of the bone over the nerve root/disc material form under the nerve root to give it more space and relieve compression

26

What should you educate the patient on after lower back pain surgery?

-Use straight back chairs
-NO stomach lying
-NO bending, lifting, or twisting for 6 weeks
-NO driving until off meds
-NO stairs for 1 week post op and then w/ assistance

27

Bursitis

Inflammation of the bursae
-fluid filled sac b/t bones

28

Ligaments

bone to bone

29

Tendons

muscle to bone

30

Tendinitis

inflammation of the tendons