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Flashcards in Upper Respiratory Tract Disorders Deck (77)
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1

What are the most common causes of illness?

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

2

Most Upper Respiratory Infections are what kind of infections?

Viral Infections

3

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

Group of disorders characterized by inflammation and irritation of the mucous membranes of the nose and maybe eyes
-Acute or chronic

4

Rhinitis

the most frequent viral infection - common cold

5

S/S Rhinitis

-Rhinorrhea
-Nasal Congestion
-Nasal discharge
-Headache
-General malaise, low grade fever, chills, and muscle aches

6

Risk Factors for Rhinitis

-highly contagious
-Adults avg 2-4 colds/year
-Adult women are more susceptible

7

What is the most common treatment for Rhinitis?

Antihistamines

8

Side effects of Antihistamines

Sedation, dry mouth, GI upset, cardiac arrhythmias

9

What patients must be cautious w/ taking antihistamines?

Patients w/ asthma, urinary retention, hypertension, open-ended glaucoma, BPH

10

What other medications can be used to help w/ Rhinitis?

-Nasal spray
-Expectorants
-Herbal medications
-Bacterial infections may need antibiotics

11

How much fluids should the patient be encouraged to drink?

2-3 L

12

Who should not be encouraged to increase fluid intake?

Patients w/ kidney problems, CHF, or pulmonary edema

13

Rhinosinusitis = Sinusitis

Classified as Acute Bacterial or Viral rhinosinusitis
-Acute < 4 weeks
-Chronic >12 weeks

14

When is Rhinosinusitis considered recurrent?

3 or more episodes in 1 year

15

S/S of Rhinosinusitis

-Purulent Nasal Drainage
-Drainage
-Cough
-Chronic hoarseness
-Chronic headaches
-Hyposmia

16

Goals for Rhinosinusitis

Treat infection, shrink the nasal mucosa and relieve pain

17

Nursing Management for Rhinosinusitis

-Adequate hydration
-Steam inhalation 20-30 mins tid
-Saline irrigation
-Avoid smoking
-Medications (Amoxicillin-Doxycycline)

18

Pharyngitis

Inflammation of the pharynx involving the back portion of the tongue, soft palate, and tonsils
-Acute or chronic

19

Who is more likely to develop pharyngitis?

< 25 years old
ages 5-15
teachers, singers, alcoholics

20

S/S of Pharyngitis

-fiery-red pharyngeal membrane and tonsils
-tonsils are swollen and flecked w/ white-purple exudate
-NO cough
-Tender cervical lymph nodes
-Fever > 100.4, malaise, sore throat, vomiting, anorexia

21

What 2 diagnostic tests may be used for pharyngitis?

RADT- rapid antigen detecting testing
STCX- strep culture

22

RADT

Ask the patient to open their mouth, tilt head back, stick out tongue, then take qtip around the back of the throat and around the tonsils
-may gag/vomit

23

Bacterial Pharyngitis Medications

-Penicillin (Choice treatment)
-Nasal congestion = meds w/ ephedrine sulfate
-Aspirin/acetaminophen for anti-inflammatory/analgesic

24

Laryngitis Causes

voice abuse or exposure to dust, chemicals, smoke, pollutants, or viruses that cause the common cold

25

Laryngitis may be associated w/?

exposure to sudden temperature changes
dietary deficiencies
malnutrition
immunosuppressed state

26

What is a patient likely to have w/ laryngitis?

Pharyngitis

27

S/S Laryngitis

-Aphonia- complete loss of voice
-Hoarseness
-Dry cough
-Tickle in throat
-Pain in throat worse in the morning

28

Nursing Management of Laryngitis

-Resting the voice
-Avoid irritants
-Hydration
-Avoid decongestants
-Bacterial = antibiotics

29

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

Cessation of breathing during sleep, usually caused by repetitive upper airway obstruction

30

What characterizes OSA?

Recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction and reduction in ventilation