Flashcards in Carbohydrates and Lipids Deck (23)
What is the primary function of carbohydrates in the body?
What are the functions of lipids in the body?
Name 2 trioses important in glycolysis (that Nick wants us to know).
dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
Name 2 pentoses.
Name 3 hexoses.
Glucose, Galactose, Fructose. (Cyclic monosaccharides)
Name 3 disaccharides and their constituent monosaccharide parts.
Sucrose - Glucose + Fructose
Lactose - Glucose + Galactose
Maltose - Glucose + Glucose
Name 4 important polysaccharides
Starch - plant source 75% Amylopectin 25% Amylose
Cellulose - plant source, indigestible
Glycogen - animal source
Dextrin - breakdown product of glycogen and starch
What are the energy contents of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and alcohol?
Define a fatty acid
Hydrocarbon chains (long >12C, v.long >22C)
Can be saturated or unsaturated (C=C)
Can be cis or trans (isomerism)
What are the components of a triglyceride?
Glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What is a phospholipid?
PO₄ group attached to one or more fatty acid chains via glycerol or sphingosine
What is a glycolipid?
Carbohydrate element attached to one or more fatty acid chains directly or via glycerol or sphingosine.
(Cell surface receptors)
What are ketone bodies?
Small (4-carbon), water-soluble fatty acids formed by the liver during fasting (energy substrates for the brain).
Excessive production of ketones can lead to what complication in diabetic patients?
Name 3 ketone bodies
Acetoacetic acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid
(and the breakdown product acetone)
What are the main lipoproteins used in lipid metabolism and transport in the body?
Where is GLUT1? What does it transport?
Glucose, Galactose, Mannose
Where is GLUT2? What does it transport?
Liver, Pancreatic B cell
Where is GLUT3? What does it transport?
Brain, Intestine, Placenta
Where is GLUT4? What does it transport?
Skel. muscle, Adipose
What does SGLT stand for?
Sodium Glucose Linked Transporter (Active transport)
Where is SGLT1? What does it transport?
2 glucose, Na+, galactose