Carbohydrates and Lipids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Carbohydrates and Lipids Deck (23)
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1

What is the primary function of carbohydrates in the body?

Energy Source

2

What are the functions of lipids in the body?

Energy source
Membrane components
Hormonal signalling

3

Name 2 trioses important in glycolysis (that Nick wants us to know).

dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

4

Name 2 pentoses.

Ribose, Deoxyribose

5

Name 3 hexoses.

Glucose, Galactose, Fructose. (Cyclic monosaccharides)

6

Name 3 disaccharides and their constituent monosaccharide parts.

Sucrose - Glucose + Fructose
Lactose - Glucose + Galactose
Maltose - Glucose + Glucose

7

Name 4 important polysaccharides

Starch - plant source 75% Amylopectin 25% Amylose
Cellulose - plant source, indigestible
Glycogen - animal source
Dextrin - breakdown product of glycogen and starch

8

What are the energy contents of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and alcohol?

(In kcal/g)
Carbs: 4
Lipids: 9
Protein: 4
Alcohol: 7

9

Define a fatty acid

Hydrocarbon chains (long >12C, v.long >22C)
Can be saturated or unsaturated (C=C)
Can be cis or trans (isomerism)

10

What are the components of a triglyceride?

Glycerol and 3 fatty acids

11

What is a phospholipid?

PO₄ group attached to one or more fatty acid chains via glycerol or sphingosine
(Phospholipid Membranes)

12

What is a glycolipid?

Carbohydrate element attached to one or more fatty acid chains directly or via glycerol or sphingosine.
(Cell surface receptors)

13

What are ketone bodies?

Small (4-carbon), water-soluble fatty acids formed by the liver during fasting (energy substrates for the brain).

14

Excessive production of ketones can lead to what complication in diabetic patients?

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

15

Name 3 ketone bodies

Acetoacetic acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid
(and the breakdown product acetone)

16

What are the main lipoproteins used in lipid metabolism and transport in the body?

Chylomicrons
VLDL
IDL
LDL
HDL

17

Where is GLUT1? What does it transport?

Glucose, Galactose, Mannose
Found everywhere
High affinity

18

Where is GLUT2? What does it transport?

Glucose, Fructose
Liver, Pancreatic B cell
Low affinity

19

Where is GLUT3? What does it transport?

Glucose
Brain, Intestine, Placenta

20

Where is GLUT4? What does it transport?

Glucose
Skel. muscle, Adipose
!INSULIN SENSITIVE!

21

What does SGLT stand for?

Sodium Glucose Linked Transporter (Active transport)

22

Where is SGLT1? What does it transport?

2 glucose, Na+, galactose
Intestine, Kidney

23

Where is SGLT2? What does it transport?

2 glucose, Na+
Kidneys
(Tip: SGLT2 = 2 kidneys. SGLT1 = 1 intestine)