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Flashcards in Cellular respiration Deck (21)
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1

Do these transporters conduct passive or active transport? GLUT and SGLT

GLUT - passive
SGLT - active

2

Which of the GLUT (1,2,3,4) transporters is insulin sensitive?

GLUT-4
GLUT-2 is NOT insulin sensitive

3

What is the net 'energy' gain of glycolysis?

2 x ATP
2 x NADH (equiv to 6 ATP)

4

In glycolysis, what do you start with and end with?

glucose -> 2 x pyruvate

5

Where does glycolysis occur?

cytosol/cytoplasm

6

Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?

Mitochondria

7

Where does the krebs/citric cycle occur and where is the electron transport chain (ETC) located?

Krebs cycle - mitochondrial matrix
ETC - inner mitochondrial membrane

8

What is the name of process which imports pyruvate (from glycolysis) into the mitochondria?

Oxidative Decarboxylation

9

What does oxidative carboxylation result in?

Import of pyruvate from glycolysis into the mitochondria involves oxidative decarboxylation
This produces acetyl-CoA and NADH inside the mitochondria

10

What is the net (energy) gain from oxidative decarboxylation (per glucose molecule)?

1 x glucose = 2 x pyruvate = 2 x NADH in oxidative decarboxylation

11

What is the net (energy) gain from the krebs cycle (per glucose molecule)?

1 x glucose = 2 x pyruvate = 2 x acetyl coA:
- 6 x NADH
- 2 x FADH2
- 2 x GTP

12

How is acetyl-coA formed?

By β-oxidation of Fatty Acids

13

What is the net (energy) gain from β-oxidation of Fatty Acids to create acetyl-coA?

1 x NADH
1 X FADH2

14

What are the NADH and FADH2 produced from glucose used for?

Used in the ETC (inner mt membrane) to make ATP

15

Describe how the electron transport chain works.

Energy from oxidation (removing electrons) of NADH and FADH2 is used to pump H+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane against their concentration gradient (into the intermembrane space)
As H+ moves back across the membrane through ATP synthase (into the mt matrix), ATP is produced from ADP

16

In the ETC, what is the ultimate electron acceptor?

Oxygen - accepts electrons (from NADH/FADH2 to make H2O)

17

What is gluconeogenesis?

Making new glucose from non-carbohydrate sources
In liver
Process requires energy (more made at end)
Sources:
Glycerol (triglycerides), amino acids (proteins), lactate (anaerobic glycolysis)

18

What is the Cori cycle?

During vigorous exercise, muscle metabolism switches to anaerobic glycolysis, generating lactate.
The lactate is transported to the liver, where it is converted to glucose by gluconeogenesis (requires energy)

19

How are amino acids (aa) used in the urea cycle?

AA's - deamination by series of trasamination reactions - urea produced in liver via urea cycle - released into blood stream.

20

Which amino acid is used in the urea cycle to make urea?

Arginine

21

Which organs use the following as energy sources?
Glucose
Fatty acids
ketones
Amino acids

Glucose - most tissues (brain/RBCs)
Fatty acids - most tissues (minimal in neurons)
Ketones - most tissues (not liver) BRAIN
Amino acids - fast dividing cells (particularly glutamine) e.g. enterocytes and cancer cells