Flashcards in Cellular respiration Deck (21)
Do these transporters conduct passive or active transport? GLUT and SGLT
GLUT - passive
SGLT - active
Which of the GLUT (1,2,3,4) transporters is insulin sensitive?
GLUT-2 is NOT insulin sensitive
What is the net 'energy' gain of glycolysis?
2 x ATP
2 x NADH (equiv to 6 ATP)
In glycolysis, what do you start with and end with?
glucose -> 2 x pyruvate
Where does glycolysis occur?
Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur?
Where does the krebs/citric cycle occur and where is the electron transport chain (ETC) located?
Krebs cycle - mitochondrial matrix
ETC - inner mitochondrial membrane
What is the name of process which imports pyruvate (from glycolysis) into the mitochondria?
What does oxidative carboxylation result in?
Import of pyruvate from glycolysis into the mitochondria involves oxidative decarboxylation
This produces acetyl-CoA and NADH inside the mitochondria
What is the net (energy) gain from oxidative decarboxylation (per glucose molecule)?
1 x glucose = 2 x pyruvate = 2 x NADH in oxidative decarboxylation
What is the net (energy) gain from the krebs cycle (per glucose molecule)?
1 x glucose = 2 x pyruvate = 2 x acetyl coA:
- 6 x NADH
- 2 x FADH2
- 2 x GTP
How is acetyl-coA formed?
By β-oxidation of Fatty Acids
What is the net (energy) gain from β-oxidation of Fatty Acids to create acetyl-coA?
1 x NADH
1 X FADH2
What are the NADH and FADH2 produced from glucose used for?
Used in the ETC (inner mt membrane) to make ATP
Describe how the electron transport chain works.
Energy from oxidation (removing electrons) of NADH and FADH2 is used to pump H+ across the mitochondrial inner membrane against their concentration gradient (into the intermembrane space)
As H+ moves back across the membrane through ATP synthase (into the mt matrix), ATP is produced from ADP
In the ETC, what is the ultimate electron acceptor?
Oxygen - accepts electrons (from NADH/FADH2 to make H2O)
What is gluconeogenesis?
Making new glucose from non-carbohydrate sources
Process requires energy (more made at end)
Glycerol (triglycerides), amino acids (proteins), lactate (anaerobic glycolysis)
What is the Cori cycle?
During vigorous exercise, muscle metabolism switches to anaerobic glycolysis, generating lactate.
The lactate is transported to the liver, where it is converted to glucose by gluconeogenesis (requires energy)
How are amino acids (aa) used in the urea cycle?
AA's - deamination by series of trasamination reactions - urea produced in liver via urea cycle - released into blood stream.
Which amino acid is used in the urea cycle to make urea?