Introduction to the Abdomen Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to the Abdomen Deck (16)
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What are the borders of the abdominal cavity?

Respiratory diaphragm to the pelvic girdle and pelvic inlet.


Define a Hernia

Protrusion of a tissue, structure or organ through a tissue that normally contains it.


What is visceral pain?

Vague, Diffuse, Poorly defined
Sensitive to: Stretch, Inflammation, Hypoxia


What level is the Transpyloric plane and how do you find it?

L1. Halfway between sternal notch and pubic symphysis.


What level is the Subcostal plane and how do you find it?

L2. Level with bottom of 10th ribs.


What level is the Supracristal plane and how do you find it?

L4. Across the highest points of the iliac crests.


What level is the Transtubercular plane and how do you find it?

L5. Across ASIS.


List the layers of the abdominal wall from superficial to deep.

Skin, Superficial Fascia (Scarpa's then Camper's), External Oblique, Internal Oblique, Transversus Abdominus, Transversalis Fascia, Parietal Peritoneum.


What is the Rectus Sheath, what are its components?

Aponeuroses of External Oblique, Internal Oblique and Transversus Abdominus form Rectus Sheath containing Rectus Abdominis.


What is the primary function of abdominal wall muscles?

Flexion of the spine, bending forwards.


What arteries unite the subclavian and external iliac artery and where are they found?

Superior and Inferior epigastric arteries anastamose within the rectus sheath. They form an arterial shunt if the aorta is narrowed.


Where does abdominal wall lymphatic fluid drain to?

Axillary and Inguinal lymph nodes.


Which cavity is the gut tube enclosed in?

Peritoneal cavity


What is the mesentry?

A double fold of peritoneum attached to the posterior abdominal wall. It encloses the gut tube.


What is the difference in arrangement of the abdo wall layers above and below the umbilicus?

Above the umbilicus, aponeuroses of the flat abdominal wall muscles surround the rectus abdominus muscle.
Below the umbilicus, aponeuroses covers the ant. side of the rectus abdominus muscle and the traversalis fascia sits post.


What artery/vein does the rectus sheath contain? Can a needle be passed through the linea alba?

Inferior epigastric artery and vein.
Yes - it is safe, as the linea alba is mainly avascular