Flashcards in Urinary tract anatomy Deck (17)
What layers of connective tissue surround the kidneys?
What vertebral levels do kidneys sit at?
T11 - L2/3
Right is lower due to liver
Hila sit around L1
Where does the renal angle sit?
Between the lower border of rib 12 and lateral border of paravertebral muscles
At what vertebral level do the renal arteries arise?
Embryologically, what do the kidneys develop from?
Metanephros (intermediate mesoderm) and the ureteric bud
Anatomically, where do the ureters sit?
Run vertically inferior to pelvic cavity; follow tips of lumbar vertebrae transverse processes
Describe ureter anatomy and histology.
Smooth muscle wall
Lined with transitional epithelium
What are the main places that calculi (stones) can get stuck in the ureters? (Hint: PUJ VUJ)
1) Pelvic inlet - ureters cross the pelvic brim
2) Ureteropelvic junction
3) Vesicoureteric junction
How many surfaces does the bladder have?
2 x inferolateral
What ligaments support the urinary bladder?
Pubo-vesical ligament (female)
Levator ani - both sexes
Pubo-prostatic ligament (male)
What muscle does the bladder have and describe its histology?
Detrusor (smooth) muscle in wall
Transitional epithelium lining (urothelium)
Where does the blood supple for the bladder arise from?
Internal iliac artery
How is the bladder innervated?
Top of bladder - covered in peritoneum (above pelvic pain line = T12-L2 symp n
Below pelvic pain line = S2-4 parasymp n
Embryologically, what does the bladder develop from?
Anterior part of the cloaca with the allantois attached
What is the allantois? What is its remnant called?
Passes from bladder region of cloaca to umbilicus - drains urine
Remnant of allantois - urachus
What are the steps within the micturition reflex?
1. Stretch of bladder wall (visceral afferents)
2. Contraction of detrusor (parasymp)
3. Relaxation of Int Urethral Sphincter (parasymp)
4. Relaxation of ext urethral sphincter (somatic)