Carbs I Flashcards Preview

Biochem 1 > Carbs I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbs I Deck (56):
1

What can glucose be made into via modification

proteoglycans, other glycosides

2

what can glucose produce bia the PPP

ribose, NADPH

3

what can glycose be used to make via glycolysis

pyruvate

4

oligosaccharides

less than 10 molecules are linked

5

polysaccharides

chains more than 10 molecules

6

beta configation

C1 hydroxyl group on the same side of ring

7

alpha confiration

C1 hydroxyl group on the opp side of the ring

8

mutarotation

in solution the alpha and beta form interconvert

9

what does mutarotation explain

damaging effects from teh reducing power of glucose.

10

in the open chain form waht can sugard do

reduce proteins

11

what happens when you oxidize the C1 hydroxyl group of glucose

initae the PPP

12

what happens if you oxidize the C6-hydroxyl group

yield uronic acid, which are important for proteoglycans in teh ECM

13

what does reduction of glucose yield

hexitol

14

what does oxiation of glucose yield

acids and ketones

15

what happens when you phosphorylate glucose

makes free glucose, which is found in extracellular fluids and enterocytes

16

what happens when you aminiate glucose

helps make UDP-GlcNAc

17

what does glucosamine synthesis start from

fructose 6 phosphate

18

where are sulfated sugars found

large proteoglycan molecules that make up ECM

19

what do sulfate groups add to the molecule

negative charge

20

formation of glycosidic bond mechanism

1. sugar linked to nucleotide, requires ATP, to form NDP-sugar
2. NDP-sugar transfers carb to target molecule, catalyzed by glycosyltransfase and does not require ATP

21

what are glycosidic bonds formed between

substrate and activated sugar nucleotide

22

what is UDP-glucose required for

synthesis of glyogen

23

what is UP-glucuronic acid required for

liver detox reaction

24

glycogen synthase

builds storage carbohydrate glycogen by transferring glucose from UDP glucose to an existing glycogen molecule

25

UDP glucuronyltransferases

transfer glucuronic acid from UDP-glucuronate to many differetn substrates to facilitte excretion

26

echinocandians

antifungal drugs that prevent synthesis of gungal cell wall beta glucan

27

ethambutol

imparies cell wall in TB

28

function of alpha linked polysaccharides

storage form of glucose.

29

functino of beta linked polysaccharides

structural support

30

main breakdown produces of starch and glycogen degration

maltose, maltotriose, glucose, alpha-limit dextin

31

what degrades straches in the small intestine

alpha glucosidase and isomaltase

32

wht is maltase hydrolyzed by

maltase

33

what is lactose hydrolyzed into

glucose and galactose

34

what is maltose hydrolyzed into

2 glucose molecules

35

what is sucros split into

glucose and fructose

36

raffinose

sugar in seeds that can't be digested easily, leads to farts

37

where is Na+/glucose symporter SGLT1 located

small intestine and kidney

38

function of Na+/glucose symporter SGLT1

active transport of glucose adn galatone into epithelial cells

39

where is GLUT1 found

all tissues

40

function of GLUT1

basal glucose/galactose uptake

41

location of GLUT2

liver, intestine, beta cells of pancreas

42

function of GLUT 2 in liver

removal of glucose/galactose form blood

43

function of GLUT 2 in intestine

relase of glucose/galactose from epithelial cells into circulation

44

function of GLUT 2 in pancrease

regulation of insulin secretion

45

wehre is GLUT 3 found

all tissues

46

function of GLUT 3

basal glucose galactose uptake

47

where is GLUT 4 found

muscles and adipose tissue

48

function of GLUT 4

incraeses with endurance training, can be translocated to cell surface

49

where is GLUT 5 located

small intetine, liver

50

function of GLUT 5

uptake of fructose

51

what transport is induced by insuline

GLUT 4

52

function of hexokinase

phorphorylates c6 of glucose, gives it a neg change, prevents it from being transported across membrane

53

function of galactosekinase

traps galctose inside cells

54

what does liver produce instead of hexokinase

glucokinase

55

fructokinase

high affinity uptake and degration of fructose in hepatocytes

56

what is different about glucokinase in comparision to hexokinase

it's not inhibited by glucose 6 phosphate, so it keeps trapping glucose in the liver even if intracellualr conc are high