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Peptide secreted by ventricles of the heart in response to excessive stretching of the heart muscles

Brain Natriuretic Peptide

1

What controls the modulation of BNP?

Calcium

2

In a heart failure patient, what would the BNP levels look like?

Elevated

3

System that regulates blood pressure and water balance

Renin Angiotension Aldosterone System

4

The volumetric fraction of blood pumped out of the ventricle with each heartbeat or cardiac cycle

Ejection Fraction

5

What is a normal ejection fraction?

70%

6

What is the danger level of ejection fraction?

<55%

7

The volume of blood pumped from one ventricle with each beat

Stroke volume

8

The stoke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart when all other factors remain constant

Starling's Law

10

The intrinsic ability of the heart to squeeze; the potential of the myocyte to contract

Contractility

11

What is the most accurate measure of how a heart patient is doing?

Ejection fraction

12

Pressure needed to open the aortic valve

Impedance

13

Myocardial fiber stretch, determined by the amount of blood at the end of diastole and by the pulmonary system

Preload

14

The resistance against which the left ventricle must eject its load

Afterload

15

High density lipoproteins that enable the transportation of lipids such as cholesterol

HDL

16

Low density lipoproteins that enable the transportation of lipids such as cholesterol

LDL

17

Stretching the heart too much will cause it to explode

Starling's Law

18

What is the good cholesterol?

HDL

19

What should the HDL levels be?

Greater than 40

20

What should the LDL levels be?

Less than 100

21

Occurs when the kidneys leak small amounts of albumin in the urine indicating protein breakdown and heart disease?

Microalbuminuria

22

Glycerol and a three fatty acid chain that help enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver

Triglycerides

23

What should triglyceride levels be?

Lower than 150

24

Protein produced by the liver that rises when there is inflammation throughout the body, especially in the heart

C-Reactive protein

25

A non-protein amino acid which high levels of are linked to cardiovascular disease

Homocysteine

26

What is the left atrial valve?

Mitral

27

What is the normal stroke volume?

50 mL/contraction

28

What is the formula for cardiac output?

CO = HR x SV

29

What is the normal cardiac output?

4-7 L/min

30

What factors affect preload?

Blood volume, muscle fiber length, and tension