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Flashcards in Diabetes Deck (115)
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1

How much insulin does the pancreas secrete daily?

40-50 units

2

What is the first major organ that insulin reaches?

The liver

3

What secretes insulin?

The beta cells of the Islets of Langerhan of the Pancreas gland

4

What does insulin promote in muscles?

Protein and glycogen synthesis

5

Converting fats to acids

Ketogenesis

6

What is insulin made of?

Alpha and Beta chains

7

What is the secretion of low levels of insulin during fasting called?

Basal insulin secretion

8

Promotes the production and storage of glycogen

Glycogenisis

9

What are the characteristics of diabetes mellitus?

Hyperglycemia, Glycosuria, and Ketonuria

10

How does insulin inhibit tissue breakdown?

Inhibits liver glycogenolysis, ketogenesis, and gluconeogenisis

11

Conversion of proteins to glucose

Gluconeogenisis

12

Precursors of insulin

Preproinsulin and Proinsulin

13

Which insulin precursor must be made smaller before becoming active?

Preproinsulin

14

Which electrolyte does insulin allow to pass from the ECF to the ICF?

Potassium

15

Inhibits glycogen breakdown into glucose

Glycogenolysis

16

What is increased when a patient is stressed?

Glycogenisis

17

What is the increased level of insulin after eating called?

Prandial Secretion

18

An endocrine disorder in which there is insufficient amount or lack of insulin secretion to metabolize carbohydrates

Diabetes Mellitus

19

What does insulin promote in fat cells?

Triglyceride storage

20

What molecules does insulin increase the synthesis of?

Proteins and lipids

21

What is proinsulin made of?

Alpha, beta, and c-peptide chains

22

What is the main fuel for the CNS?

Glucose

23

What is insulin's purpose?

Takes sugar into the cells

24

How long after eating is insulin released?

10 minutes

25

Which of the precursors of insulin is inactive?

Preproinsulin

26

What historical questions should a patient be asked during an assessment for diabetes?

How long they have been feeling off and if they've lost any weight

27

What types of carbohydrates should diabetics eat?

Complex carbs

28

What is the most accurate blood test for diabetes?

A1c

29

Finger-stick test used to monitor blood sugar

FSBS

30

What happens in the absence of insulin?

Hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, hemoconcentration, hypervolemia, hyperviscosity, hypoperfusion, hypoxia, acidosis, Kussmaul respirations, hypokalemia, or hyperkalemia