Flashcards in Neuro Deck (101)
Disease of the basal ganglia
What is Parkinson's characterized by?
Slowing down in the initiation and execution of movement, increased muscle tone, tremors at rest, and impaired postural reflexes
Who is Parkinson's more common in?
Men older than 50
What is the pathology of Parkinson's Disease?
Degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in substantia nigra of the midbrain, disrupting the dopamine-acetylcholine balance in basal ganglia
What is dopamine essential for the normal functioning of?
Posture, support, and voluntary motion
When do the symptoms of Parkinson's begin?
After 80% of the neurons in the substantia nigra are gone
What is the hallmark of Parkinson's?
What is the rigidity in Parkinson's caused by?
Sustained muscle contractions
What are the nursing interventions for patients with Parkinson's?
Fall risk, aspiration risk, nutrition risk
How is Parkinson's diagnosed?
Solely on history and clinical features
What confirms a Parkinson's diagnosis?
A positive response to anti-parkinsonian medications
What is the goal of drug therapy for Parkinson's?
Enhance or release the supply of Dopamine and block the effects of overactive cholinergic neurons
Dopamine receptor antagonist that promotes the release of dopamine
In which patients is Parlodel used?
Patients who experience dyskinesias or orthostatic hypotension while receiving Sinemet
Precursor of dopamine the can cross the blood brain barrier and convert to dopamine in the basal ganglia
Levodopa with carbidopa
What does long term use of levodopa with carbidopa lead to?
How should levodopa with carbidopa be used?
Before meals to increase absorption and transport across the blood brain barrier
Drug used to block specific enzymes that inactivate dopamine
What teachings should accompany MAO Inhibitors?
There are many food interactions that continue for 14 days after discontinuation
Why are anticholinergic drugs used to manage Parkinson's?
They decrease the activity of acetylcholine
What does surgery to to treat Parkinson's?
Decrease the increased neuronal activity produced by dopamine depletion
Which surgeries are used in the treatment of Parkinson's?
Ablation and Deep Brain Stimulation
What are the nutritional concerns in patients with Parkinson's?
Malnutrition, constipation, and aspiration
How should the nutritional concerns of Parkinson's patients be addressed?
Food easy to chew, thicken, small frequent meals, and adequate roughage
What is the cause of Parkinson's?
Possible genetic component, stress
What do Parkinson's patients look like?
Hunched over, shuffled gait and pill rolling fingers
What sensory impairment do patients with Parkinson's have?
Dry eyes do to excessive blinking
What do Parkinson's patients usually die of?
Pneumonia due to aspiration and immobility
What are the five Fs of Neurodegenerative diseases?
Fatigue and immobility, fluctuations in function, frequent medication changes, fecal, and flow