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Flashcards in Neuro Deck (101)
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1

Disease of the basal ganglia

Parkinson's Disease

2

What is Parkinson's characterized by?

Slowing down in the initiation and execution of movement, increased muscle tone, tremors at rest, and impaired postural reflexes

3

Who is Parkinson's more common in?

Men older than 50

4

What is the pathology of Parkinson's Disease?

Degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in substantia nigra of the midbrain, disrupting the dopamine-acetylcholine balance in basal ganglia

5

What is dopamine essential for the normal functioning of?

Posture, support, and voluntary motion

6

When do the symptoms of Parkinson's begin?

After 80% of the neurons in the substantia nigra are gone

7

What is the hallmark of Parkinson's?

Cogwheel rigidity

8

What is the rigidity in Parkinson's caused by?

Sustained muscle contractions

9

What are the nursing interventions for patients with Parkinson's?

Fall risk, aspiration risk, nutrition risk

10

How is Parkinson's diagnosed?

Solely on history and clinical features

11

What confirms a Parkinson's diagnosis?

A positive response to anti-parkinsonian medications

12

What is the goal of drug therapy for Parkinson's?

Enhance or release the supply of Dopamine and block the effects of overactive cholinergic neurons

13

Dopamine receptor antagonist that promotes the release of dopamine

Parlodel

14

In which patients is Parlodel used?

Patients who experience dyskinesias or orthostatic hypotension while receiving Sinemet

15

Precursor of dopamine the can cross the blood brain barrier and convert to dopamine in the basal ganglia

Levodopa with carbidopa

16

What does long term use of levodopa with carbidopa lead to?

dyskinesia

17

How should levodopa with carbidopa be used?

Before meals to increase absorption and transport across the blood brain barrier

18

Drug used to block specific enzymes that inactivate dopamine

MAO Inhibitor

19

What teachings should accompany MAO Inhibitors?

There are many food interactions that continue for 14 days after discontinuation

20

Why are anticholinergic drugs used to manage Parkinson's?

They decrease the activity of acetylcholine

21

What does surgery to to treat Parkinson's?

Decrease the increased neuronal activity produced by dopamine depletion

22

Which surgeries are used in the treatment of Parkinson's?

Ablation and Deep Brain Stimulation

23

What are the nutritional concerns in patients with Parkinson's?

Malnutrition, constipation, and aspiration

24

How should the nutritional concerns of Parkinson's patients be addressed?

Food easy to chew, thicken, small frequent meals, and adequate roughage

25

What is the cause of Parkinson's?

Possible genetic component, stress

26

What do Parkinson's patients look like?

Hunched over, shuffled gait and pill rolling fingers

27

What sensory impairment do patients with Parkinson's have?

Dry eyes do to excessive blinking

28

What do Parkinson's patients usually die of?

Pneumonia due to aspiration and immobility

29

What are the five Fs of Neurodegenerative diseases?

Fatigue and immobility, fluctuations in function, frequent medication changes, fecal, and flow

30

Chronic demyelinating disease of the entire central nervous system caused by plaque, inflammation, edema and recovery of the nerve cells

Multiple Sclerosis