Flashcards in Immunology Deck (116)
What are the first lines of defense against pathogens?
Physical and mechanical barriers like skin and the linings of the GI, GU, and respiratory tracts
What are the specific defenses of the first line of immunity?
Sloughing off of cells, coughing and sneezing, flushing, vomiting, mucous and cilia
What are the biochemical barriers our bodies have against toxins?
Synthesized and secreted saliva, tears, ear wax, sweat, mucus, and gastric pH; antimicrobial peptides; and normal bacteria flora
What is the body's second line of defense against pathogens?
What causes the inflammatory response?
Infection, mechanical damage, ischemia, nutrient deprivation, temperature extremes, and radiation
How does the inflammatory response protect the human body?
Neutralizing, elimination, or destroying organisms that invade the internal environment
What is the individual recognition on each of our cells that makes up the unique universal product code for each person?
Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)
About how many antigens make up the HLAs?
Provides immediate protection against the effects of tissue injury and foreign proteins
What kind of damage can result from excessive inflammatory response?
Heart attack, stroke, and other tissue damage
A process that occurs in response to tissue injury and to the invasion of organisms
What generally accompanies infection?
Nonspecific ingestion of microorganisms and foreign proteins; kills infection
Ingestion and phagocytosis
Releases histamine and heparin with tissue damage
Why is heparin released with tissue damage?
To prevent clot formation and help healing
Weak phagocytic and vasoactive amines during allergic reactions
Immune response of phagocytes, cytotoxic lymphocytes, and cytokines
Cell mediated immunity
What kind of lymphocytes does antibody mediated immunity use?
What do B lymphocytes do?
Formation of antibodies
Defense against invading foreign microorganisms
Activation of B cells and circulating antibodies
Antibody mediated immunity
Secretory protein on mucous membranes and outer body skin surfaces
Blood group markers that probably stimulate autoimmune diseases and responses
Mediates allergic and hypersensitivity reactions, protects against parasitic infections
Regulates lymphocyte activation and suppression
What is the most common immunoglobulin?
Which immunoglobulin is the first line of defense?
Which lymphocyte is involved in cell mediated immunity?