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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (116)
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What are the first lines of defense against pathogens?

Physical and mechanical barriers like skin and the linings of the GI, GU, and respiratory tracts

1

What are the specific defenses of the first line of immunity?

Sloughing off of cells, coughing and sneezing, flushing, vomiting, mucous and cilia

2

What are the biochemical barriers our bodies have against toxins?

Synthesized and secreted saliva, tears, ear wax, sweat, mucus, and gastric pH; antimicrobial peptides; and normal bacteria flora

3

What is the body's second line of defense against pathogens?

Inflammatory response

4

What causes the inflammatory response?

Infection, mechanical damage, ischemia, nutrient deprivation, temperature extremes, and radiation

5

How does the inflammatory response protect the human body?

Neutralizing, elimination, or destroying organisms that invade the internal environment

6

What is the individual recognition on each of our cells that makes up the unique universal product code for each person?

Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA)

7

About how many antigens make up the HLAs?

40

8

Provides immediate protection against the effects of tissue injury and foreign proteins

Inflammation

9

What kind of damage can result from excessive inflammatory response?

Heart attack, stroke, and other tissue damage

10

A process that occurs in response to tissue injury and to the invasion of organisms

Infection

11

What generally accompanies infection?

Inflammation

12

Nonspecific ingestion of microorganisms and foreign proteins; kills infection

Neutrophils

13

Ingestion and phagocytosis

Macrophages

14

Releases histamine and heparin with tissue damage

Basophils

15

Why is heparin released with tissue damage?

To prevent clot formation and help healing

16

Weak phagocytic and vasoactive amines during allergic reactions

Eosinophils

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Immune response of phagocytes, cytotoxic lymphocytes, and cytokines

Cell mediated immunity

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What kind of lymphocytes does antibody mediated immunity use?

B lymphocytes

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What do B lymphocytes do?

Formation of antibodies

20

Defense against invading foreign microorganisms

IgG

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Activation of B cells and circulating antibodies

Antibody mediated immunity

22

Secretory protein on mucous membranes and outer body skin surfaces

IgA

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Blood group markers that probably stimulate autoimmune diseases and responses

IgM

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Mediates allergic and hypersensitivity reactions, protects against parasitic infections

IgE

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Regulates lymphocyte activation and suppression

IgD

26

What is the most common immunoglobulin?

IgG

27

Which immunoglobulin is the first line of defense?

IgA

28

Which lymphocyte is involved in cell mediated immunity?

T lymphocytes

29

What initiates cell mediated immunity?

Macrophages