Flashcards in Renal Deck (174)
A patient's creatinine clearance is 5 mL/min. What does this value signify?
Acute renal failure is potentially reversible in which phase?
Hyponatremia in renal dysfunction is the result of what?
Signs and symptoms of acute renal failure include what?
Tachypnea, low pH, and low serum bicarbonate
What is a common complication of hemodialysis?
Name a medication that has the dual effect of creating a solute diuresis and augmenting renal blood flow
In general, maintenance of cardiovascular function and what are the two key goals in the prevention of acute tubular necrosis?
Adequate intravascular volume
One of the most useful noninvasive diagnostic tools available for clinicians to monitor fluid volume status is what?
Monitoring daily weights
A study that delineates the size, shape, and position of the kidneys and also demonstrates abnormalities, such as calculi, hydronephrosis, cysts, or tumors is what?
While undergoing his first ever hemodialysis treatment, the patient suddenly becomes confused, complains of a headache, begins to twitch, and proceeds to have a seizure. The nurse realizes that this is most likely due to what?
Name the indications for hemodialysis.
Acid-base imbalances, electrolyte imbalances, and fluid overload
Name the principles that are the basis for dialysis.
Diffusion and ultrafiltration
After a patient has an arteriovenous fistula placed, what differences will occur in that arm?
The vein will dilate and the pulse distal to the fistula will need to be evaluated
Name the common complications of hemodialysis.
Dysrhythmias, hypotension, infection, and muscle cramps
In a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis, what signs and symptoms should a nurse be looking for?
Abdominal pain and fever, cloudy return fluid, and poor drainage from the abdominal cavity
What might exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics result in?
Acute tubular necrosis
What medications should be withheld for 4-6 hours before hemodialysis?
What is the most common intrarenal condition resulting from prolonged ischemia?
Acute tubular necrosis
How long after an aminoglycoside is administered is a peak level taken?
What contributes to prerenal failure?
Hypovolemia and cardiogenic shock
Urine output of less than 400 mL in 24 hours
The sudden deterioration of renal function, resulting in retention of nitrogenous waste products
Acute renal failure
Conditions that produce acute renal failure by interfering with renal perfusion
Acute renal failure resulting from obstruction of the flow of urine
Conditions that produce produce acute renal by directly acting on functioning kidney tissues
Particularly useful for patients in the critical care unit whose cardiovascular status is too unstable to tolerate rapid fluid removal
Continuous renal replacement therapy
Manifested by abdominal pain, cloudy peritoneal fluid, fever and chills, nausea and vomiting, and difficulty in draining fluid from the peritoneal cavity
Commonly used to treat the anemia of chronic renal failure
Controversial treatment of acute renal failure