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Flashcards in Renal Deck (174)
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A patient's creatinine clearance is 5 mL/min. What does this value signify?

Renal Dysfunction

1

Acute renal failure is potentially reversible in which phase?

Initiation phase

2

Hyponatremia in renal dysfunction is the result of what?

Water overload

3

Signs and symptoms of acute renal failure include what?

Tachypnea, low pH, and low serum bicarbonate

4

What is a common complication of hemodialysis?

Hypotension

5

Name a medication that has the dual effect of creating a solute diuresis and augmenting renal blood flow

Furosemide

6

In general, maintenance of cardiovascular function and what are the two key goals in the prevention of acute tubular necrosis?

Adequate intravascular volume

7

One of the most useful noninvasive diagnostic tools available for clinicians to monitor fluid volume status is what?

Monitoring daily weights

8

A study that delineates the size, shape, and position of the kidneys and also demonstrates abnormalities, such as calculi, hydronephrosis, cysts, or tumors is what?

KUB x-ray

9

While undergoing his first ever hemodialysis treatment, the patient suddenly becomes confused, complains of a headache, begins to twitch, and proceeds to have a seizure. The nurse realizes that this is most likely due to what?

Cerebral edema

10

Name the indications for hemodialysis.

Acid-base imbalances, electrolyte imbalances, and fluid overload

11

Name the principles that are the basis for dialysis.

Diffusion and ultrafiltration

12

After a patient has an arteriovenous fistula placed, what differences will occur in that arm?

The vein will dilate and the pulse distal to the fistula will need to be evaluated

13

Name the common complications of hemodialysis.

Dysrhythmias, hypotension, infection, and muscle cramps

14

In a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis, what signs and symptoms should a nurse be looking for?

Abdominal pain and fever, cloudy return fluid, and poor drainage from the abdominal cavity

15

What might exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics result in?

Acute tubular necrosis

16

What medications should be withheld for 4-6 hours before hemodialysis?

Antihypertensives

17

What is the most common intrarenal condition resulting from prolonged ischemia?

Acute tubular necrosis

18

How long after an aminoglycoside is administered is a peak level taken?

1-2 hours

19

What contributes to prerenal failure?

Hypovolemia and cardiogenic shock

20

Urine output of less than 400 mL in 24 hours

Oliguria

21

The sudden deterioration of renal function, resulting in retention of nitrogenous waste products

Acute renal failure

22

Conditions that produce acute renal failure by interfering with renal perfusion

Prerenal

23

Acute renal failure resulting from obstruction of the flow of urine

Postrenal

24

Conditions that produce produce acute renal by directly acting on functioning kidney tissues

Intrarenal

25

Particularly useful for patients in the critical care unit whose cardiovascular status is too unstable to tolerate rapid fluid removal

Continuous renal replacement therapy

26

Manifested by abdominal pain, cloudy peritoneal fluid, fever and chills, nausea and vomiting, and difficulty in draining fluid from the peritoneal cavity

Peritonitis

27

Commonly used to treat the anemia of chronic renal failure

Epogen

28

Controversial treatment of acute renal failure

Dopamine

29

Primarily used for controlling fluid volume

Ultrafiltration