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Illness and Patho 1 > Reproductive > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (187):
1

What is stage one of fibrocystic breast condition?

Premenstrual fullness and tenderness occurring on the menstrual cycle

2

Physiologic modularity of the breast including lobules, ducts, and stromal tissue

Fibrocystic Breast Condition

3

What is the most common breast problem of women between 20-50 years of age?

Fibrocystic Breast Condition

4

Solid, slowly enlarging, benign mass; round, firm, easily movable, non-tender and clearly delineated from the surrounding tissue

Fibroadenoma

5

How can ductal ectasia be managed?

Warm complex and antibiotics

6

How can fibrocystic breast condition be managed?

Symptomatic management, hormonal manipulation, drug therapy, diuretics, avoiding caffeine, mild analgesics, and limiting salt

7

What is stage two of fibrocystic breast condition?

Multiple nodular areas in both breasts

8

Benign breast problem of women approaching menopause caused by dilation and thickening of the collecting ducts in the sub-areolar area

Ductal Ectasia

9

What are fibroadenomas made up of?

Connective tissue that is unattached to the surrounding breast tissue

10

Benign process in the epithelial lining of the duct, forming a pedunculated outgrowth of tissue

Intraductal Papilloma

11

What are the symptoms of fibrocystic breast condition?

Ropey, bumpy, lumpy breast tissue that is tender, painful, and burning characterized by fibrosis and cysts

12

What vitamins should be increased when a patient has fibrocystic breast condition?

Vitamins C, E, and B complex

13

What is the most common breast mass in women under the age of 30?

Fibroadenoma

14

Why do the symptoms of fibrocystic breast condition usually go away after menopause?

Because estrogen decreases

15

What is stage three of fibrocystic breast condition?

Microscopic cysts associated with pain, tenderness, or burning in women 35-55

16

What is fibrocystic breast condition caused by?

An imbalance of of estrogen to progesterone ration with more estrogen and less progesterone

17

What are the signs of ductal ectasia?

Hard, tender mass with irregular boarders, greenish brown nipple discharge, enlarged axillary nodes, redness and edema over the site of the mass

18

Where are fibroadenomas often located?

The upper outer quadrant

19

When do the symptoms of fibrocystic breast condition usually resolve?

After menopause

20

In what age range does intraducal papilloma occur in?

40-55

21

What types of adjunctive therapy can be used for patients with breast cancer?

Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, SERMs, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy

22

What should patients with premenstrual syndrome eat?

Limit sugar, red meat, alcohol, coffee, tea and chocolate

23

Vaginal bleeding that occurs after a 12 month cessation of menses after the onset of menopause

Postmenopausal bleeding

24

Vaginal mucosa is dry, thin, and traumatized easily with intercourse

Atrophic vaginitis

25

What are the signs of intraductal papilloma?

Bloody or serous nipple discharge

26

Soft, red, oval tissue masses in cervix

Cervical polyps

27

Tissue overgrowth in uterus that is a precursor of endometrial cancer

Endometrial hyperplasia

28

How long is radiation therapy used after breast cancer?

6-7 weeks

29

Benign condition of breast enlargement in men

Gynecomastia

30

What are the genes that put patients at risk for breast cancer?

BRCA1 & BRCA2

31

Most commonly diagnosed invasive cancer in women

Breast cancer

32

An early form of breast cancer that does not metastasize

Noninvasive breast cancer

33

How is intraductal papilloma diagnosed?

By ruling out breast cancer

34

Gross removal of a tumor from a breast

Lumpectomy

35

What are the causes of postmenopausal bleeding?

Atrophic vaginitis, cervical polyps, or endometrial hyperplasia

36

What is the key to survival for breast cancer patients?

Early detection

37

What are the causes of gynecomastia?

Primary cancer, drugs, aging, obesity, estrogen excess, liver disease, hyperthyroidism, androgen deficiency, chronic renal failure, or alcoholism

38

What do breast cancers in men usually present as?

Hard, non painful subareolar masses

39

What stages of breast cancer is chemo used for?

Stage 2 or higher

40

Highly aggressive form of invasive breast cancer that presents as redness, swelling and rash of the breast skin that may or may not be itching, painful, or thickened

Inflammatory breast cancer

41

What causes endometrial hyperplasia?

Declining ovarian stimulation, leading to prolonged estrogen stimulation

42

What are the types of noninvasive breast cancer?

Ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma

43

What is the key to diagnosis breast cancer?

Ultrasounds

44

When should mammograms start?

Yearly at 40

45

Why does primary dysmenorrhea occur?

Increased production and release of uterine prostaglandins

46

Removal of the portion of a breast that contains a tumor

Partial Mastectomy

47

Most common type of breast cancer that spreads from mammary ducts to surrounding tissue characterized by irregular, poorly deformed masses

Invasive breast cancer

48

What is a SERM?

An estrogen receptor blocking agent, like tamoxifen

49

What is the purpose of Herceptin?

It blocks HER2/neu gene expression to slow or stop growth of cancer cells

50

Breast affected by cancer, along with skin and axillary nodes is completely removed

Modified Radical Mastectomy

51

A benign problem of endometrial tissue implantation outside the uterine cavity

Endometriosis

52

What is the key diagnostic procedure for endometriosis?

Laparoscopy

53

What are the signs and symptoms of menopause based on?

The level of hormones and estrogen swings

54

What is the surgical management for dysfunctional uterine bleeding?

Hormone manipulation

55

Inflammation of the lower genital tract

Simple vaginitis

56

If a patient has amenorrhea, what else should they be assessed for?

Hirsutism, galactorrhea, and nutritional status

57

What conditions are dysfunctional uterine bleeding associated with?

Endocrine disturbances, polycystic ovary disease, stress, extreme weight loss, long term drug use and anatomic abnormalities

58

What is endometriosis caused by?

Birth defects

59

How can simple vaginitis be managed?

Perineal cleaning after urination or defecation, wearing cotton underwear, avoiding strong douches and feminine hygiene sprays, avoiding tight fitting pants, using estrogen creams, eating yogurt with antibiotics

60

What are the signs of uterine prolapse?

Dyspareunia, backache, pressure in the pelvis, bowel or bladder problems

61

Septic shock characterized by abrupt high temperature, headache, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, generalized rash, and hypotension

Toxic shock syndrome

62

Absence of a menstrual period

Amenorrhea

63

Nonspecific term used to describe bleeding that is excessive or abnormal in amount or frequency without predisposing anatomic or systemic conditions

Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

64

How long does perimenopause last?

10 years

65

What is simple vaginitis caused by?

Menopause, STD, Trichomonas, candida, changes in normal flora, alkaline pH, tampons and condoms, douches or sprays, health problems such as diabetes

66

What are the causes of amenorrhea?

Abnormalities of the reproductive tract

67

What is the surgical manipulation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding?

DNC, endometrial ablation, and hysterectomy

68

What are the symptoms of endometriosis?

Pain, dyspareunia, painful defection, sacral backache, hypermenorrhea, and infertility

69

How is amenorrhea treated?

Hormone replacement, ovulation, stimulation, and periodic progesterone withdrawal

70

How is toxic shock syndrome treated?

Penicillin or vancomycin

71

What is the treatment for rectocele?

High-fiber diet, stool softeners, laxatives, and surgery

72

What is the treatment for cystocele?

Kegel exercises or surgery

73

What generally causes follicular cysts to rupture?

Torsion

74

What are theca-luatein cysts a result of?

Molar pregnancy

75

What causes polycystic ovaries?

High levels of luteinizing hormone overstimulate the ovaries

76

What is the sign of a fibroid?

Midcycle bleeding

77

Small, purplish red cyst occurring after ovulation and often with increased secretion of progesterone causing low abdominal or pelvic pain

Coprus Luteum Cyst

78

Protrusion of the rectum through a weakened vaginal wall

Rectocele

79

What are the common complications of hysteroscopic surgery?

Fluid overload, embolism, hemorrhage, perforation of the uterus, bowel or bladder and ureter, persistent increased menstrual bleeding, and incomplete suppression of menstruation

80

Obstruction of the duct of the Bartholin's gland caused by infection, thickened mucus near the ductal opening or trauma such as lacerations or episiotomy

Bartholin Cyst

81

What is the best stool softener?

Milk of magnesia

82

Pedunculated tumors arising from the mucosa and extending to the opening of the cervical os

Cervical polyps

83

What are the symptoms of rectocele?

Constipation, hemorrhoids, fecal impaction, feelings of rectal or vaginal fullness

84

What is the treatment for polycystic ovary?

Oral contraceptives, surgery, or clomiphene

85

What are the symptoms of cystocele?

Difficulty in emptying the bladder, urinary frequency and urgency, urinary tract infection, and stress urinary incontinence

86

What is the most common type of endometrial cancer?

Adenocarcinoma

87

What can happen if a corpus luteum cyst ruptures?

Intraperitoneal hemorrhage

88

For which stages of endometrial cancer is a TAHBSO recommended?

Stage 2 and above

89

What are the clinical manifestations of cervical cancer?

Painless vaginal bleeding, watery, blood-tinged vaginal discharge that may become dark and foul smelling, leg pain, flank pain, unexpected weight loss, pelvic pain, dysuria, hematuria, rectal bleeding, chest pain and cough

90

What are the adverse affects of radiation therapy for endometrial cancer?

Nausea, bladder infections, pain, diarrhea, and DVTs

91

What is the main symptom of endometrial cancer?

Postmenopausal bleeding

92

Uncommon cysts hat develop as a result of prolonged stimulation of the ovaries by excessive amount of hCG

Theca-Luatein Cysts

93

What are the stages of uterine prolapse classified by?

The degree of decent of the uterus

94

What is the most common type of ovarian cancer?

Serous adenocarcinoma

95

What are the symptoms of vulvar cancer?

Irritation or itching in the perineal area or a sore that will not heal

96

What type of cancers are cervical and vulvar generally?

Squamous cell carcinomas

97

What test identifies abnormal vulvar cells?

Touidine blue test

98

Protrusion of the bladder through the vaginal wall due to weakened pelvic structures

Cystocele

99

What is vaginal cancer associated with?

Diethylstilbestrol

100

What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?

Abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, indigestion, gas and distention

101

What are the symptoms of fallopian tube cancer?

Postmenopausal bleeding, increased abdominal pain, watery vaginal discharge, and leukorrhea

102

What is the rarest gynecological cancer?

Fallopian tube cancer

103

What drugs can be used to treat BPH?

5-Alpha reductase inhibitor, Alpha-1 selective blocking agents, lycopene, and estrogens and androgens

104

What type of cancer is prostate cancer?

Adenocarcinoma

105

What is the post op care after a radical prostatectomy?

Hydration with IV therapy, caring for wound drains, preventing emboli, preventing pulmonary complications, antibiotics, analgesics, laxatives, and antispasmodics

106

Three-way urinary catheter with a 30- to 45- mL retention balloon through the urethra into the bladder

Continuous Bladder Irrigation

107

Inability to achieve or maintain an erection for sexual intercourse

Erectile dysfunction

108

What information does a duplex doppler give for a patient experiencing erectile dysfunction?

Blood supply

109

What are the symptoms of BPH?

Hyperirritable bladder, urgency, frequency, hesitancy, hydroureter, diverticula, hydronephrosis, dribbling, hematuria

110

Where does prostate cancer metastasize to?

Lymph nodes, bones, lungs, and liver

111

What should the nurse do for post op TURP patients?

Encourage voiding, increasing fluid intake, and monitor for bleeding

112

Why is it very important to document the time a catheter is removed from a patient?

Because they need to void in a specified amount of time

113

What are the side effect of continuous bladder irrigation?

Post op bleeding and the urge to void continuously

114

When does BPH occur?

Late 50s - early 60s

115

In who is testicular cancer most common?

Men 15 - 35 years old

116

What are therapies for erectile dysfunction?

Drug therapy, vacuum devices, intraurethral applications, intracorporal injections, and prosthesis

117

Glandular units in the prostate that undergo an increase in the number of cells resulting in enlargement of the prostate gland

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

118

How is a hydrocele treated?

Drained via needle and string or removed surgically

119

A small, asymptomatic sperm-containing cyst that develops on the epididymis along side the testicle

Spermatocele

120

What should be measured when a patent is catheterized?

Intake and Output

121

What complications can occur after a radical prostectomy?

Urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction

122

A cluster of dilated veins that occur behind and above the testes causing infertility

Varicocele

123

What electrolyte would be elevated in a patient with prostate cancer?

Calcium

124

Cystic mass usually filled with straw colored fluid that forms around the testis resulting from impaired lymphatic drainage of the scrotum, causing swelling of the tissue surrounding the testes

Hydrocele

125

What are the types of nonsurgical management for prostate cancer?

Radiation, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy

126

What type of cancer is penile?

Epidermoid or squamous cell

127

When is scrotal trauma most likely to occur?

During puberty

128

What is the clinical manifestation of penile cancer?

Painless warlike growth or ulcer

129

What can cause priapism?

Thrombosis, leukemia, sickle cell, DM, malignancies, abnormal reflex, drugs, and prolonged sexual activity

130

How is priapism treated?

Enemas, catheterization, and surgical intervention

131

Constricted prepuce that cannot be retracted over the glans so that it remains down around the tip of the penis

Phimosis and Paraphimosis

132

Torsion of the testes involving a twisting of the spermatic cord

Scrotal Trauma

133

Acute testicular inflammation resulting from trauma or infection

Orchitis (Mumps)

134

What causes nonbacterial/chronic pelvic pain syndrome?

Viral illness or STD, autoimmune disease, or allergies

135

Uncontrolled and long-maintained erection without sexual desire, causing the penis to become large and painful

Priapism

136

How is penile cancer prevented?

Circumcision

137

What is the treatment for orchitis?

Bedrest with scrotal elevation, ice, pain meds, and antibiotics

138

Inflammation of the epidermis resulting from an infection or noninfectious source such as trauma

Epididymitis

139

Infection of the lower urinary tract that causes urethral discharge and a boggy, tender prostate

Bacterial prostatitis

140

Why is scrotal trauma a surgical emergency?

The testes are very sensitive to any decrease in blood flow

141

What is the treatment for epididymitis?

Bedrest with scrotal elevation

142

How long does it take for secondary syphilis to develop?

Six weeks to six months after onset

143

How long does latent syphilis last?

One year

144

How long does secondary syphilis last?

Four to twelve weeks

145

What confirms a syphilis diagnosis?

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory serum test

146

Which type of syphilis requires more than one penicillin dose?

Late latent syphilis

147

What does primary syphilis look like?

Ulcer on genitalia or any mucous membrane

148

Where to genital herpes stay when dormant?

In the sacral ganglia

149

When is genital herpes contagious?

During viral shedding

150

How long does tertiary syphilis last?

Four to twenty years

151

What does secondary syphilis look like?

Rash on palms and feet

152

What is the incubation period for genital herpes?

Two to twenty days

153

In what stage is syphilis contagious only to fetuses?

Latent syphilis

154

What is the most common STD?

Genital Herpes

155

How is syphilis spread?

Sexual contact, kissing, and close body contact

156

What does tertiary syphilis look like?

Benign lesions of the gums, mucous membranes, and bones

157

Genital warts caused by HPV

Condylomata Acuminata

158

What is the goal of treatment for genital herpes?

To decrease the severity, promote healing, and decrease the recency of recurrent outbreaks

159

What is the treatment for syphilis?

Penicillin

160

Why does chlamydia cause infertility?

Scarring of the fallopian tubes

161

Sexually transmitted bacterial infection of a gram negative diplococcus

Gonorrhea

162

Complex infection process in which organisms from the lower genital tract migrate from the endocervix upward through the uterine cavity into the fallopian tubes

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

163

How is pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed?

Rule out ectopic pregnancy and appendicitis

164

What other infections can gonorrhea lead to?

Meningitis and endocarditis

165

What does Condylomata Acuminata look like?

Initially single, small papillary growth that grow into large cauliflower-like masses

166

What is presumed if a patient has gonorrhea?

They also have chlamydia

167

What infections are caused by pelvic inflammatory disease?

Endometritis, salpingitis, oophritis, parametritis, peritonitis, and tubal or tubo-ovarian abscess

168

What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?

In men, dysuria and penile discharge; in women, vaginal discharge, urinary frequency or dysuria

169

What drugs may be prescribed to treat genital herpes?

Acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir

170

What drugs are prescribed to treat gonorrhea?

Cephalosporins and zithromax or doxycycline

171

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

In men, urethritis, and women are asymptomatic

172

What can the spread of gonorrhea cause in women?

Endometritis, salpingitis, and pelvic peritonitis

173

In what position should patients with PID be in?

Semi-Fowlers

174

Result of genital infection with one of three serotypes of Chlamydia which is spread systematically until it localizes in the genital or rectal lymph nodes

Lymphogranuloma Venereum

175

Painful, soft genital lesions caused by infection and transmitted through contact with the ulcer or with the discharge

Chancroid

176

What are the risk factors for PID?

Younger than 26, multiple sex partners, smoking, IUD, history of STDs

177

What is the incubation period of a chancriod?

Three to ten days

178

What is the most common complication of PID?

Infertility

179

What is the clinical manifestation of lymphogranuloma venereum?

A groove in the penis

180

What are the clinical manifestations of PID?

Lower abdominal pain, irregular vaginal bleeding, change in vaginal discharge, dysuria, dyspareunia, hunched over gait, fatigue, diaphoresis, hyperthermic, abdominal tenderness or rigidity, yellow or green cervical discharge, and a reddened or friable cervix

181

What is the treatment for chancroids?

Azithromycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin

182

Which hepatitis is not generally a STD?

Hepatitis A

183

What are the types of parasites?

Scabies, Pediculosis pubis, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis

184

Painless nodules that are ulcerated and vascular and bleed easily on contact

Granuloma Inguinale

185

What is the real name for crabs?

Pediculosis pubis

186

How is granuloma inguinale treated?

Doxycycline

187

How is granuloma inguinale diagnosed?

By the presence of Donovan bodies in the ulcers