Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (187):
What is stage one of fibrocystic breast condition?
Premenstrual fullness and tenderness occurring on the menstrual cycle
Physiologic modularity of the breast including lobules, ducts, and stromal tissue
Fibrocystic Breast Condition
What is the most common breast problem of women between 20-50 years of age?
Fibrocystic Breast Condition
Solid, slowly enlarging, benign mass; round, firm, easily movable, non-tender and clearly delineated from the surrounding tissue
How can ductal ectasia be managed?
Warm complex and antibiotics
How can fibrocystic breast condition be managed?
Symptomatic management, hormonal manipulation, drug therapy, diuretics, avoiding caffeine, mild analgesics, and limiting salt
What is stage two of fibrocystic breast condition?
Multiple nodular areas in both breasts
Benign breast problem of women approaching menopause caused by dilation and thickening of the collecting ducts in the sub-areolar area
What are fibroadenomas made up of?
Connective tissue that is unattached to the surrounding breast tissue
Benign process in the epithelial lining of the duct, forming a pedunculated outgrowth of tissue
What are the symptoms of fibrocystic breast condition?
Ropey, bumpy, lumpy breast tissue that is tender, painful, and burning characterized by fibrosis and cysts
What vitamins should be increased when a patient has fibrocystic breast condition?
Vitamins C, E, and B complex
What is the most common breast mass in women under the age of 30?
Why do the symptoms of fibrocystic breast condition usually go away after menopause?
Because estrogen decreases
What is stage three of fibrocystic breast condition?
Microscopic cysts associated with pain, tenderness, or burning in women 35-55
What is fibrocystic breast condition caused by?
An imbalance of of estrogen to progesterone ration with more estrogen and less progesterone
What are the signs of ductal ectasia?
Hard, tender mass with irregular boarders, greenish brown nipple discharge, enlarged axillary nodes, redness and edema over the site of the mass
Where are fibroadenomas often located?
The upper outer quadrant
When do the symptoms of fibrocystic breast condition usually resolve?
In what age range does intraducal papilloma occur in?
What types of adjunctive therapy can be used for patients with breast cancer?
Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, SERMs, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy
What should patients with premenstrual syndrome eat?
Limit sugar, red meat, alcohol, coffee, tea and chocolate
Vaginal bleeding that occurs after a 12 month cessation of menses after the onset of menopause
Vaginal mucosa is dry, thin, and traumatized easily with intercourse
What are the signs of intraductal papilloma?
Bloody or serous nipple discharge
Soft, red, oval tissue masses in cervix
Tissue overgrowth in uterus that is a precursor of endometrial cancer
How long is radiation therapy used after breast cancer?
Benign condition of breast enlargement in men
What are the genes that put patients at risk for breast cancer?
BRCA1 & BRCA2
Most commonly diagnosed invasive cancer in women
An early form of breast cancer that does not metastasize
Noninvasive breast cancer
How is intraductal papilloma diagnosed?
By ruling out breast cancer
Gross removal of a tumor from a breast
What are the causes of postmenopausal bleeding?
Atrophic vaginitis, cervical polyps, or endometrial hyperplasia
What is the key to survival for breast cancer patients?
What are the causes of gynecomastia?
Primary cancer, drugs, aging, obesity, estrogen excess, liver disease, hyperthyroidism, androgen deficiency, chronic renal failure, or alcoholism
What do breast cancers in men usually present as?
Hard, non painful subareolar masses
What stages of breast cancer is chemo used for?
Stage 2 or higher
Highly aggressive form of invasive breast cancer that presents as redness, swelling and rash of the breast skin that may or may not be itching, painful, or thickened
Inflammatory breast cancer
What causes endometrial hyperplasia?
Declining ovarian stimulation, leading to prolonged estrogen stimulation
What are the types of noninvasive breast cancer?
Ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma
What is the key to diagnosis breast cancer?
When should mammograms start?
Yearly at 40
Why does primary dysmenorrhea occur?
Increased production and release of uterine prostaglandins
Removal of the portion of a breast that contains a tumor
Most common type of breast cancer that spreads from mammary ducts to surrounding tissue characterized by irregular, poorly deformed masses
Invasive breast cancer
What is a SERM?
An estrogen receptor blocking agent, like tamoxifen
What is the purpose of Herceptin?
It blocks HER2/neu gene expression to slow or stop growth of cancer cells
Breast affected by cancer, along with skin and axillary nodes is completely removed
Modified Radical Mastectomy
A benign problem of endometrial tissue implantation outside the uterine cavity
What is the key diagnostic procedure for endometriosis?
What are the signs and symptoms of menopause based on?
The level of hormones and estrogen swings
What is the surgical management for dysfunctional uterine bleeding?
Inflammation of the lower genital tract
If a patient has amenorrhea, what else should they be assessed for?
Hirsutism, galactorrhea, and nutritional status
What conditions are dysfunctional uterine bleeding associated with?
Endocrine disturbances, polycystic ovary disease, stress, extreme weight loss, long term drug use and anatomic abnormalities
What is endometriosis caused by?
How can simple vaginitis be managed?
Perineal cleaning after urination or defecation, wearing cotton underwear, avoiding strong douches and feminine hygiene sprays, avoiding tight fitting pants, using estrogen creams, eating yogurt with antibiotics
What are the signs of uterine prolapse?
Dyspareunia, backache, pressure in the pelvis, bowel or bladder problems
Septic shock characterized by abrupt high temperature, headache, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, generalized rash, and hypotension
Toxic shock syndrome
Absence of a menstrual period
Nonspecific term used to describe bleeding that is excessive or abnormal in amount or frequency without predisposing anatomic or systemic conditions
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
How long does perimenopause last?
What is simple vaginitis caused by?
Menopause, STD, Trichomonas, candida, changes in normal flora, alkaline pH, tampons and condoms, douches or sprays, health problems such as diabetes
What are the causes of amenorrhea?
Abnormalities of the reproductive tract
What is the surgical manipulation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding?
DNC, endometrial ablation, and hysterectomy
What are the symptoms of endometriosis?
Pain, dyspareunia, painful defection, sacral backache, hypermenorrhea, and infertility
How is amenorrhea treated?
Hormone replacement, ovulation, stimulation, and periodic progesterone withdrawal
How is toxic shock syndrome treated?
Penicillin or vancomycin
What is the treatment for rectocele?
High-fiber diet, stool softeners, laxatives, and surgery
What is the treatment for cystocele?
Kegel exercises or surgery
What generally causes follicular cysts to rupture?
What are theca-luatein cysts a result of?
What causes polycystic ovaries?
High levels of luteinizing hormone overstimulate the ovaries
What is the sign of a fibroid?
Small, purplish red cyst occurring after ovulation and often with increased secretion of progesterone causing low abdominal or pelvic pain
Coprus Luteum Cyst
Protrusion of the rectum through a weakened vaginal wall
What are the common complications of hysteroscopic surgery?
Fluid overload, embolism, hemorrhage, perforation of the uterus, bowel or bladder and ureter, persistent increased menstrual bleeding, and incomplete suppression of menstruation
Obstruction of the duct of the Bartholin's gland caused by infection, thickened mucus near the ductal opening or trauma such as lacerations or episiotomy
What is the best stool softener?
Milk of magnesia
Pedunculated tumors arising from the mucosa and extending to the opening of the cervical os
What are the symptoms of rectocele?
Constipation, hemorrhoids, fecal impaction, feelings of rectal or vaginal fullness
What is the treatment for polycystic ovary?
Oral contraceptives, surgery, or clomiphene
What are the symptoms of cystocele?
Difficulty in emptying the bladder, urinary frequency and urgency, urinary tract infection, and stress urinary incontinence
What is the most common type of endometrial cancer?
What can happen if a corpus luteum cyst ruptures?
For which stages of endometrial cancer is a TAHBSO recommended?
Stage 2 and above
What are the clinical manifestations of cervical cancer?
Painless vaginal bleeding, watery, blood-tinged vaginal discharge that may become dark and foul smelling, leg pain, flank pain, unexpected weight loss, pelvic pain, dysuria, hematuria, rectal bleeding, chest pain and cough
What are the adverse affects of radiation therapy for endometrial cancer?
Nausea, bladder infections, pain, diarrhea, and DVTs
What is the main symptom of endometrial cancer?
Uncommon cysts hat develop as a result of prolonged stimulation of the ovaries by excessive amount of hCG
What are the stages of uterine prolapse classified by?
The degree of decent of the uterus
What is the most common type of ovarian cancer?
What are the symptoms of vulvar cancer?
Irritation or itching in the perineal area or a sore that will not heal
What type of cancers are cervical and vulvar generally?
Squamous cell carcinomas
What test identifies abnormal vulvar cells?
Touidine blue test
Protrusion of the bladder through the vaginal wall due to weakened pelvic structures
What is vaginal cancer associated with?
What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?
Abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, indigestion, gas and distention
What are the symptoms of fallopian tube cancer?
Postmenopausal bleeding, increased abdominal pain, watery vaginal discharge, and leukorrhea
What is the rarest gynecological cancer?
Fallopian tube cancer
What drugs can be used to treat BPH?
5-Alpha reductase inhibitor, Alpha-1 selective blocking agents, lycopene, and estrogens and androgens
What type of cancer is prostate cancer?
What is the post op care after a radical prostatectomy?
Hydration with IV therapy, caring for wound drains, preventing emboli, preventing pulmonary complications, antibiotics, analgesics, laxatives, and antispasmodics
Three-way urinary catheter with a 30- to 45- mL retention balloon through the urethra into the bladder
Continuous Bladder Irrigation
Inability to achieve or maintain an erection for sexual intercourse
What information does a duplex doppler give for a patient experiencing erectile dysfunction?
What are the symptoms of BPH?
Hyperirritable bladder, urgency, frequency, hesitancy, hydroureter, diverticula, hydronephrosis, dribbling, hematuria
Where does prostate cancer metastasize to?
Lymph nodes, bones, lungs, and liver
What should the nurse do for post op TURP patients?
Encourage voiding, increasing fluid intake, and monitor for bleeding
Why is it very important to document the time a catheter is removed from a patient?
Because they need to void in a specified amount of time
What are the side effect of continuous bladder irrigation?
Post op bleeding and the urge to void continuously
When does BPH occur?
Late 50s - early 60s
In who is testicular cancer most common?
Men 15 - 35 years old
What are therapies for erectile dysfunction?
Drug therapy, vacuum devices, intraurethral applications, intracorporal injections, and prosthesis
Glandular units in the prostate that undergo an increase in the number of cells resulting in enlargement of the prostate gland
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
How is a hydrocele treated?
Drained via needle and string or removed surgically
A small, asymptomatic sperm-containing cyst that develops on the epididymis along side the testicle
What should be measured when a patent is catheterized?
Intake and Output
What complications can occur after a radical prostectomy?
Urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction
A cluster of dilated veins that occur behind and above the testes causing infertility
What electrolyte would be elevated in a patient with prostate cancer?
Cystic mass usually filled with straw colored fluid that forms around the testis resulting from impaired lymphatic drainage of the scrotum, causing swelling of the tissue surrounding the testes
What are the types of nonsurgical management for prostate cancer?
Radiation, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy
What type of cancer is penile?
Epidermoid or squamous cell
When is scrotal trauma most likely to occur?
What is the clinical manifestation of penile cancer?
Painless warlike growth or ulcer
What can cause priapism?
Thrombosis, leukemia, sickle cell, DM, malignancies, abnormal reflex, drugs, and prolonged sexual activity
How is priapism treated?
Enemas, catheterization, and surgical intervention
Constricted prepuce that cannot be retracted over the glans so that it remains down around the tip of the penis
Phimosis and Paraphimosis
Torsion of the testes involving a twisting of the spermatic cord
Acute testicular inflammation resulting from trauma or infection
What causes nonbacterial/chronic pelvic pain syndrome?
Viral illness or STD, autoimmune disease, or allergies
Uncontrolled and long-maintained erection without sexual desire, causing the penis to become large and painful
How is penile cancer prevented?
What is the treatment for orchitis?
Bedrest with scrotal elevation, ice, pain meds, and antibiotics
Inflammation of the epidermis resulting from an infection or noninfectious source such as trauma
Infection of the lower urinary tract that causes urethral discharge and a boggy, tender prostate
Why is scrotal trauma a surgical emergency?
The testes are very sensitive to any decrease in blood flow
What is the treatment for epididymitis?
Bedrest with scrotal elevation
How long does it take for secondary syphilis to develop?
Six weeks to six months after onset
How long does latent syphilis last?
How long does secondary syphilis last?
Four to twelve weeks
What confirms a syphilis diagnosis?
Venereal Disease Research Laboratory serum test
Which type of syphilis requires more than one penicillin dose?
Late latent syphilis
What does primary syphilis look like?
Ulcer on genitalia or any mucous membrane
Where to genital herpes stay when dormant?
In the sacral ganglia
When is genital herpes contagious?
During viral shedding
How long does tertiary syphilis last?
Four to twenty years
What does secondary syphilis look like?
Rash on palms and feet
What is the incubation period for genital herpes?
Two to twenty days
In what stage is syphilis contagious only to fetuses?
What is the most common STD?
How is syphilis spread?
Sexual contact, kissing, and close body contact
What does tertiary syphilis look like?
Benign lesions of the gums, mucous membranes, and bones
Genital warts caused by HPV
What is the goal of treatment for genital herpes?
To decrease the severity, promote healing, and decrease the recency of recurrent outbreaks
What is the treatment for syphilis?
Why does chlamydia cause infertility?
Scarring of the fallopian tubes
Sexually transmitted bacterial infection of a gram negative diplococcus
Complex infection process in which organisms from the lower genital tract migrate from the endocervix upward through the uterine cavity into the fallopian tubes
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
How is pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed?
Rule out ectopic pregnancy and appendicitis
What other infections can gonorrhea lead to?
Meningitis and endocarditis
What does Condylomata Acuminata look like?
Initially single, small papillary growth that grow into large cauliflower-like masses
What is presumed if a patient has gonorrhea?
They also have chlamydia
What infections are caused by pelvic inflammatory disease?
Endometritis, salpingitis, oophritis, parametritis, peritonitis, and tubal or tubo-ovarian abscess
What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?
In men, dysuria and penile discharge; in women, vaginal discharge, urinary frequency or dysuria
What drugs may be prescribed to treat genital herpes?
Acyclovir, famciclovir, or valacyclovir
What drugs are prescribed to treat gonorrhea?
Cephalosporins and zithromax or doxycycline
What are the symptoms of chlamydia?
In men, urethritis, and women are asymptomatic
What can the spread of gonorrhea cause in women?
Endometritis, salpingitis, and pelvic peritonitis
In what position should patients with PID be in?
Result of genital infection with one of three serotypes of Chlamydia which is spread systematically until it localizes in the genital or rectal lymph nodes
Painful, soft genital lesions caused by infection and transmitted through contact with the ulcer or with the discharge
What are the risk factors for PID?
Younger than 26, multiple sex partners, smoking, IUD, history of STDs
What is the incubation period of a chancriod?
Three to ten days
What is the most common complication of PID?
What is the clinical manifestation of lymphogranuloma venereum?
A groove in the penis
What are the clinical manifestations of PID?
Lower abdominal pain, irregular vaginal bleeding, change in vaginal discharge, dysuria, dyspareunia, hunched over gait, fatigue, diaphoresis, hyperthermic, abdominal tenderness or rigidity, yellow or green cervical discharge, and a reddened or friable cervix
What is the treatment for chancroids?
Azithromycin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin
Which hepatitis is not generally a STD?
What are the types of parasites?
Scabies, Pediculosis pubis, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis
Painless nodules that are ulcerated and vascular and bleed easily on contact
What is the real name for crabs?
How is granuloma inguinale treated?