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Flashcards in Hematology Deck (179)
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1

Reduction in either the number of red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin or the hematocrit

Anemia

2

Measure of the immature RBCs; reflection of bone marrow activity in producing RBCs

Reticulocyte count

3

What is the normal reticulocyte count?

0.5 - 2.0% of the total RBCs

4

What are the normal iron levels?

60-160 mcg/dL (F) and 80-180 mcg/dL (M)

5

What are the normal serum ferritin levels?

10-50 ng/mL (F) and 12-300 ng/mL (M)

6

What is the normal total iron binding capacity level?

250-460 mcg/dL

7

Measure of the gas-carrying capacity of the RBCs

Hemoglobin

8

Measure of the packed cell volume of RBCs, expressed as a percent of the total blood volume

Hematocrit

9

Amount of iron combined with proteins in serum; accurate indicator of status of iron storage and use

Iron

10

Major iron storage protein; normally present in blood in concentrations directly related to iron storage

Serum Ferritin

11

What should the bone marrow of an anemic patient be doing?

Producing lots and lots of RBCs

12

Measurement of all proteins available for binding iron; evaluation of the amount of extra iron that can be carried

Total Iron Binding Capacity

13

The ITBC is an indirect measurement of what?

Trasnferrin

14

What are the causes of anemia?

Blood loss, an impaired production of erythrocytes, and an impaired destruction of erythrocytes

15

What are many of the symptoms of anemia caused by?

The hypoxia created by the decreased oxygen being carried to tissues

16

What is the function of the RBC?

Transport oxygen from the lungs to systemic tissue and carry CO2 from the tissue to the lungs

17

How is anemia diagnosed?

CBC, Reticulocyte count, and peripheral blood smear

18

Which types of trauma can cause RBC destruction?

Ecmo, bypass, or left ventricular assist device

19

What is the physiological manifestation of anemia?

Reduced O2 carrying capacity

20

What are the classic signs of anemia?

Fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, pallor, and tachycardia

21

Why do anemic patients experience tachycardia?

Because their bodies are trying to increase cardiac output to compensate for the decreased oxygen levels

22

What determines the severity of the anemia?

Hemoglobin

23

Which severity of anemia leaves patients with few symptoms, including possible palpitations, dyspnea, and diaphoresis?

Mild (Hemoglobin 10-14)

24

Which severity of anemia causes increased cardiopulmonary symptoms at rest and activity with a roaring in the ears?

Moderate (Hemoglobin 6-10)

25

Which severity of anemia involves multiple body systems, causing pallor, glossitis, angina, HF, MI, tachycardia, a systolic murmur, orthostatic hypotension, SOB, DOE, decreased SpO2, vertigo, depression, headaches, anorexia, sore mouth, enlarged liver and spleen, fatigue, weight loss, bone pain and sensitivity to cold?

Severe (Hemoglobin

26

Why is anemia so dangerous?

It can speed up a lot of disease processes

27

Glycoprotein primarily produced in the kidneys that increase the number of stem cells commented to RBC production and shortens the time to mature RBCs

Erythropoietin

28

What are the side effects of taking epogen?

Hypertension and bone pain

29

What is the life cycle of a RBC?

120 days

30

What three alterations in erythropoiesis decrease RBC production?

Decreased hemoglobin synthesis, defective DNA synthesis in RBCs, and diminished availability of erythrocyte precursors