Flashcards in Hematology Deck (179)
Reduction in either the number of red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin or the hematocrit
Measure of the immature RBCs; reflection of bone marrow activity in producing RBCs
What is the normal reticulocyte count?
0.5 - 2.0% of the total RBCs
What are the normal iron levels?
60-160 mcg/dL (F) and 80-180 mcg/dL (M)
What are the normal serum ferritin levels?
10-50 ng/mL (F) and 12-300 ng/mL (M)
What is the normal total iron binding capacity level?
Measure of the gas-carrying capacity of the RBCs
Measure of the packed cell volume of RBCs, expressed as a percent of the total blood volume
Amount of iron combined with proteins in serum; accurate indicator of status of iron storage and use
Major iron storage protein; normally present in blood in concentrations directly related to iron storage
What should the bone marrow of an anemic patient be doing?
Producing lots and lots of RBCs
Measurement of all proteins available for binding iron; evaluation of the amount of extra iron that can be carried
Total Iron Binding Capacity
The ITBC is an indirect measurement of what?
What are the causes of anemia?
Blood loss, an impaired production of erythrocytes, and an impaired destruction of erythrocytes
What are many of the symptoms of anemia caused by?
The hypoxia created by the decreased oxygen being carried to tissues
What is the function of the RBC?
Transport oxygen from the lungs to systemic tissue and carry CO2 from the tissue to the lungs
How is anemia diagnosed?
CBC, Reticulocyte count, and peripheral blood smear
Which types of trauma can cause RBC destruction?
Ecmo, bypass, or left ventricular assist device
What is the physiological manifestation of anemia?
Reduced O2 carrying capacity
What are the classic signs of anemia?
Fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, pallor, and tachycardia
Why do anemic patients experience tachycardia?
Because their bodies are trying to increase cardiac output to compensate for the decreased oxygen levels
What determines the severity of the anemia?
Which severity of anemia leaves patients with few symptoms, including possible palpitations, dyspnea, and diaphoresis?
Mild (Hemoglobin 10-14)
Which severity of anemia causes increased cardiopulmonary symptoms at rest and activity with a roaring in the ears?
Moderate (Hemoglobin 6-10)
Which severity of anemia involves multiple body systems, causing pallor, glossitis, angina, HF, MI, tachycardia, a systolic murmur, orthostatic hypotension, SOB, DOE, decreased SpO2, vertigo, depression, headaches, anorexia, sore mouth, enlarged liver and spleen, fatigue, weight loss, bone pain and sensitivity to cold?
Why is anemia so dangerous?
It can speed up a lot of disease processes
Glycoprotein primarily produced in the kidneys that increase the number of stem cells commented to RBC production and shortens the time to mature RBCs
What are the side effects of taking epogen?
Hypertension and bone pain
What is the life cycle of a RBC?