Flashcards in GI Deck (129)
Acute inflammation of the vermiform appendix
Where do patients with appendicitis have pain?
In the epigastic or periumbilical area
When do patients with appendicitis have nausea and vomiting?
After the abdominal pain
What are the signs of appendicitis?
Pain at McBurney's point and rebound tenderness
Why is appendicitis very difficult to diagnose?
Because it is a diagnosis of exclusion
Why should patients with appendicitis not be given laxatives?
They can cause perforation of the appendix
Why should patients with appendicitis not use heat for the pain?
Because heat causes the circulation in the appendix to increase, leading to inflammation and perforation
How should patients with appendicitis be positioned?
What are the priorities when a patient comes into the ER with appendicitis?
Make that patient NPO and give IV fluids and electrolytes
How many mL of sterile fluid are normally in the peritoneal cavity to prevent friction?
Life threatening acute inflammation of visceral/parietal peritoneum and endothelial lining of abdominal cavity, or peritoneum
What does primary peritonitis indicate?
Peritoneum is infected via the bloodstream
What does secondary peritonitis indicate?
Contamination of the peritoneal cavity by bacteria or chemicals
Why does peritonitis have to be treated immediately?
To stop the shunting of blood to the area of inflammation and causing third spacing and hypovolemic shock
What are the signs of peritonitis?
Rigid, board like abdomen, pain, distention, high fever, tachycardia, dehydration, low urine output, hiccups, compromised respiratory status, nausea, vomiting, diminished bowel sounds, inability to pass flatus or feces, and anorexia
Why do hiccups occur with peritonitis?
Diaphragmatic irritation and increased white blood cells
How is peritonitis diagnosed?
How is peritonitis managed?
IV fluids, antibiotics, NG suctioning
What position do patients with peritonitis need to be in?
Widespread inflammation of mail the rectum and rectosigmoid colon, associated with periodic remissions and exacerbations
Unpleasant and urgent senstation to deficate
What is the poop of a patient with ulcerative colitis like?
10-20 bloody stools daily
What would the labs of a patient with ulcerative colitis be?
Decreased H&H, increased WBCs, c-reactive protein, increased erythrocyte sed, decreased electrolytes
What is the most definitive test for ulcerative colitis?
What are the drugs used to treat ulcerative colitis?
Glucocorticoid, antidiarrheal drugs, and Humira
What are the side effects of antidiarrheal drugs?
Colon dilation and toxic megacolon
What needs to be taught with Humira?
Watch for signs and symptoms of infection
What should patients with ulcerative colitis avoid?
Caffeine, pepper, alcohol, and smoking
What do patients with ostomies need to be taught?
Don't leave supplies in the car