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Flashcards in GI Deck (129)
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1

Acute inflammation of the vermiform appendix

Appendicitis

2

Where do patients with appendicitis have pain?

In the epigastic or periumbilical area

3

When do patients with appendicitis have nausea and vomiting?

After the abdominal pain

4

What are the signs of appendicitis?

Pain at McBurney's point and rebound tenderness

5

Why is appendicitis very difficult to diagnose?

Because it is a diagnosis of exclusion

6

Why should patients with appendicitis not be given laxatives?

They can cause perforation of the appendix

7

Why should patients with appendicitis not use heat for the pain?

Because heat causes the circulation in the appendix to increase, leading to inflammation and perforation

8

How should patients with appendicitis be positioned?

Semi-fowlers

9

What are the priorities when a patient comes into the ER with appendicitis?

Make that patient NPO and give IV fluids and electrolytes

10

How many mL of sterile fluid are normally in the peritoneal cavity to prevent friction?

50

11

Life threatening acute inflammation of visceral/parietal peritoneum and endothelial lining of abdominal cavity, or peritoneum

Peritonitis

12

What does primary peritonitis indicate?

Peritoneum is infected via the bloodstream

13

What does secondary peritonitis indicate?

Contamination of the peritoneal cavity by bacteria or chemicals

14

Why does peritonitis have to be treated immediately?

To stop the shunting of blood to the area of inflammation and causing third spacing and hypovolemic shock

15

What are the signs of peritonitis?

Rigid, board like abdomen, pain, distention, high fever, tachycardia, dehydration, low urine output, hiccups, compromised respiratory status, nausea, vomiting, diminished bowel sounds, inability to pass flatus or feces, and anorexia

16

Why do hiccups occur with peritonitis?

Diaphragmatic irritation and increased white blood cells

17

How is peritonitis diagnosed?

Peritoneal lavage

18

How is peritonitis managed?

IV fluids, antibiotics, NG suctioning

19

What position do patients with peritonitis need to be in?

Semi-Fowlers

20

Widespread inflammation of mail the rectum and rectosigmoid colon, associated with periodic remissions and exacerbations

Ulcerative Colitis

21

Unpleasant and urgent senstation to deficate

Tenesmus

22

What is the poop of a patient with ulcerative colitis like?

10-20 bloody stools daily

23

What would the labs of a patient with ulcerative colitis be?

Decreased H&H, increased WBCs, c-reactive protein, increased erythrocyte sed, decreased electrolytes

24

What is the most definitive test for ulcerative colitis?

Colonoscopy

25

What are the drugs used to treat ulcerative colitis?

Glucocorticoid, antidiarrheal drugs, and Humira

26

What are the side effects of antidiarrheal drugs?

Colon dilation and toxic megacolon

27

What needs to be taught with Humira?

Watch for signs and symptoms of infection

28

What should patients with ulcerative colitis avoid?

Caffeine, pepper, alcohol, and smoking

29

What do patients with ostomies need to be taught?

Don't leave supplies in the car

30

What should a stoma look like?

Pinkish to cherry red