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Flashcards in Cardiac Deck (65)
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1

What are the effects of Beta Blockers

Beta Blockers decrease HR, blood pressure, and myocardial contractility in order to decrease sympathetic cardiac stimulation.

2

What types of conditions are beta blockers good for?

angina pectoralis, arrhythmias, heart failure, recovery from an MI

3

how much does Beta blockers reduce maximum total HR by?

20-30 beats

4

what are some common side effects of beta blockers?

Bradycardia and Orthostatic Hypotension

5

What may cause a PVC

PVC's are caused by ectopic heart beats which are caused by :
anxiety
tobacco
alcohol
caffine
any condition causing myocardial ischemia

6

What may cause a PVC

PVC's are caused by ectopic heart beats which are caused by :
anxiety
tobacco
alcohol
caffine
any condition causing myocardial ischemia

7

What may cause ST segment Depression?

myocardial ischemia

8

What are the primary muscles of inspiration?

Diaphragm and External intercostals

9

What are the primary muscles of expiration

Abdominals and Internal intercostals

10

Which position is best to initially strengthen the muscles of inspiration?

Supine

11

Which position is best to initially strengthen the muscles of inspiration?

Supine

12

chest expansion during inspiaration in supine is directly related to the strength of what muscle

Intercostals (probably more the external )

13

chest expansion during inspiaration in supine is directly related to the strength of what muscle

Intercostals (probably more the external )

14

What pathologic changes are seen in the lungs with a patient who has emphysema?

Hyperinflation of the lungs due to lack of elastic recoil.

increase in total lung capacity residual volume and functional residual capasity

15

what pulmonary changes can be expected with neurologic dysfunction

decrease in vital capacity, total lung volume, and inspiratory capacity

16

What is the rate pressure product or double product

It is the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure. It is an indicator of myocardial oxygen consumption.

17

What is the rate pressure product or double product

It is the product of heart rate and systolic blood pressure. It is an indicator of myocardial oxygen consumption.

18

What do ACE inhibitors do?

decrease blood pressure and afterload by suppressing the enzyme that converts angiotensin 1-> angiotensin 2

19

Due effect of ACE inhibitors what is a likely side effect

Orthostatic Hypotension due to decreased Blood pressure.

20

what are some medications that would cause an increased fall risk

ACE inhibitors
Antiepileptic Drugs
Antispasticity Drugs

21

What are some side effects of anticoagulant medication

Hemorrhage
Increased risk of bleeding
GI distress (with oral medication)

22

What is critical limb Ischemia

Refers to severe obstruction of the arteries which markedly reduces blood flow to the extremities. It is an advanced stage of PAD (peripheral artery disease)

23

What can cause critical limb ischemia?

increased plaque build-up that blocks blood flow

24

symptoms of PAD/ critical limb ischemia

- decreased limb temp
- increased limb pain at rest
- weak or absent peripheral pulse
- shiny smooth dry skin

25

how can you decrease pain from critical limb ischemia?

Walk around
Put limb in dependant position

26

How do you categorize lymphedema?

Mild: less than 3 cm diff between sides
Mod: 3-5 cm difference betwn sides
Severe: 5+ cm diff betwn sides

27

What is an Ejection fraction?

The percentage of the end-diastolic volume ejected during subsequent systole.

28

What causes increase and decrease in ejection fraction?

When force of contraction increases ejection fraction increases (ex: exercise)

When force of contraction decreases then ejection fraction decreases (ex: cardiomyopathy or ischemic heart disease)

29

What causes increase and decrease in ejection fraction?

When force of contraction increases ejection fraction increases (ex: exercise)

When force of contraction decreases then ejection fraction decreases (ex: cardiomyopathy or ischemic heart disease)

30

What causes increase and decrease in ejection fraction?

When force of contraction increases ejection fraction increases (ex: exercise)

When force of contraction decreases then ejection fraction decreases (ex: cardiomyopathy or ischemic heart disease)