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Flashcards in OS T#1: S1 Deck (71):
1

At what angle of the knee is the MCL most responsible for knee stability?

20-30 degrees

2

At what angle do you hold the patients knee for Lachmans test?

between full ext and 30 degrees and slight lateral rotation on the tibia

3

What is a mandated reporter?

mandated reporters are people who have regular contact with vulnerable people and are therefore legally required to ensure a report is made when abuse is observed or suspected.

4

Define: Anesthesia

general or local insensibility, as to pain and other sensation, induced by certain interventions or drugs to permit the performance of surgery or other painful procedures.

insensitivity to touch

5

Define: Abarognosia

Loss of the ability to sense weight

6

Define: Analgesia

the inability to feel pain (while conscious)

7

Define:Allodynia

Pain that results from a non-injurious stimulus to the skin.

8

Define:Causalgia

constant relentless burning hyperesthesia and hyperalgesia that develops after a peripheral nerve injury

9

Define:Dysesthesia

Disorientation of any of the senses (especially touch)

10

Define:Hyperesthesia

heightened sense of touch

11

Define:Hyperpathia

heightened sense of pain

12

Define:Neuralgia

severe and multiple shock like pains that radiate from a specific nerve distribution

13

Define:Pallanesthesia

loss of vibratory sensation

14

Define:Paresthesia

abnormal sensations such as tingling, pins and needles, burning or numbness

15

Define:Asthenia

Generalized weakness

16

Define:Athetosis

A condition with involuntary movements combined with postural instability

17

Define:Fasciculation

A muscular twitch that is caused by random discharge of LMN, it suggests LMNL although it can be benign

18

Define:Fibrilation

a muscular twitch involving muscle fibrils that is not visible suggests UMNL

19

What are the common symptoms of Lymphedema?

Swelling, decreased ROM, achy heaviness, a feeling of fullness, brawny, fibrous non pitting edema.

20

What may be observed with cancer patients during ther ex

increased fatigue: elevated HR and BP, dyspnea, pallor, sweating

21

What hematological issues are possible with cancer treatment?

Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets), anemia

22

What is an open skill?

An open skill is a skill where the environment is constantly changing and so movements have to be continually adapted.

23

What is a closed skill?

These skills take place in a stable, predictable environment and the performer knows exactly what to do and when.

24

What is an internally paced skill?

This is a skill in which the performer controls the rate at which the skill is executed.

25

What is an externally paced skill?

This is a skill in which the environment, which may include opponents, controls the rate of performing the skill.

26

What is a discrete skill?

Brief, well-defined actions that have a clear beginning and end.

27

What is a serial skill?

A group of discrete skills strung together to make a new and complex movement.

28

What is a continuous skill?

A skill that has no obvious beginning or end. The end of one cycle of movements is the beginning of the next, and the skill is repeated like a cycle.

29

What foot position correlates with a rigid lever arm?

Supination

30

What position is the foot in during initial contact (heel strike)?

Supination

31

What position is the foot in during foot flat (loading response)?

Pronation

32

What position is the foot in during midstance?

Neutral

33

What position is the foot in during heel off?

Supination

34

What position is the foot in during toe off?

Supination

35

In what position should joint play be performed?

Open packed position

36

What three motions make up supination?

Inversion, Adduction, and Plantarflexion

37

What three motions make up pronation?

Eversion,Abduction and Dorsiflexion

38

Define Neurapraxia

Injury to a nerve that creases transient loss of function. (ex: conduction is blocked due to ischemia) nerve dysfunction is rapidly reversed (weeks)

39

Define Axonotmesis

Injury to to the nerve interrupting the axon and casing a loss of function and Wallerian degeneration. There is no disruption to the endoneurium and regeneration is possible.

40

Define Neurotmesis

A cutting of the nerve with severance of all structures and complete loss of function. Regeneration generally fails without surgical intervention.

41

Signs and symptoms of LMNL

Weakness/paresis
Hypotonia,absent reflexes, or flaccidity
neurogenic atrophy
Sensory loss
Autonomic disfunction
Fasciculations

42

How to diagnose LMNL's

Nerve conduction velocity tests (slower or complete block)
EMG for nerve fuction check for fibrilations

43

What is evidence of reinnervation as seen on an EMG?

Low amplitude, short duration, polyphasic motor unit potentials

44

How do you propel a hemi-wheelchair?

With one arm and the ipsilateral leg.

45

What is a contraindication to a one arm drive wheelchair?

Perceptual deficits

46

What influences a persons ability to perform normal vital capacity, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV) and total lung capacity?

muscular strength

47

What is Functional residual capacity limited by

resting end expiratory pressure

48

what is Resting end expiratory pressure (REEP)

REEP is Resting end expiratory pressure, The equilibrium point where forces of inspiration and expiration are balanced.
Occurs at the end of tidal respiration.

49

What is considered a hypomobile patella?

When performing lateral glide and patella moves less than 1 quadrant

50

What is considered a hypermobile patella?

When the patella moves more than 2 quadrants with a lateral glide

51

At what angle is the ACL least stressed?

30-60 degrees

52

Medial rotation of the knee causes which structures to become taut and which to become slack?

ACL and PCL taut and collaterals slack

53

Lateral rotation of the knee causes which structures to become taut and which to become slack?

ACL and PCL slack and collaterals taut

54

At what angle is the majority of the PCL taut?

30 degrees of flexion

55

Which 3 nerves come from the anterior portion of the brachial plexus?

Musculocutaneus, median and ulnar

56

Which two nerves come from the posterior division of the brachial plexus?

Axillary nerve and the Radial nerve

57

What is class III heart diseased marked by?

Limitation of physical activity, less than ordinary physical activity causes fatigue, palpitations, dyspnea, angina pains

58

What are the adverse reactions of Digoxin

fatigue, headache, muscle weakness, bradycardia,ventricular fibrillation, and super ventricular arrhythmias

59

Normal reactions to Digoxin are:

Confusion/ memory loss, tachycardia, and involuntary movements/ shaking.

60

What polarity is lidocaine and Xylocaine?

Positive

61

What polarity is Salicylate?

Negative

62

What polarity is Acetate

Negative

63

What polarity is Zinc

Positive

64

What polarity is Copper (for fungal infections)

positive

65

What polarity is Copper and magnesium? (muscle spasms)

positive

66

What polarity is Dexamethasone?

Negative

67

What are the side effects of long term corticosteroid use?

osteoporosis, weakened supportive joint structures, muscle wasting.

68

After how many weeks does muscle hypertrophy begin?

6-8 weeks

69

Characteristics of Venous ulcer

irregular boarders, dark pigmentation, shallow, near medial malleolus is most common.

70

Characteristics of Arterial ulcer

irregular edges, painful (especially when legs are elevated)

71

Characteristics of Diabetic ulcer

Associated with arterial disease. not painful