Cardiac Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiac Emergencies Deck (29):
1

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

(CPR) actions taken to revive a person by keeping the persons heart and lungs working

2

Defibrillation

delivery of an electronical shock to stop the fibrillation of heart muscles and restore a normal heart rhythm

3

Cardiovascular system

the heart and the blood vessels

4

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

Cardiac Compromise
blanket term used to represent any symptoms related to lack of oxygen (ischemia) in the heart muscle.

5

Signs and symptoms of Acute Coronary Syndrome

wide variety, most can result from problems that have nothing to do with the heart. many patients complain of pain in the center of the chest, others may have only mild chest discomfort or no pain at all. some difficulty breathing, some have sudden onset of sweating, nausea, and vomiting.

6

Treatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome

treat patient as though they are having a heart problem

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Dyspnea

shortness of breath; labored or difficult breathing

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Bradycardia

heart rate is slow, usually below 60 beats per minute

9

Tachycardia

heart rate fast, above 100 beats per minute

10

Coronary Artery Disease

when the coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked, blood flow is reduced, reducing amount of oxygen delivered to the heart. result of buildup of fatty deposits on the inner walls of arteries causing narrowing of the inner vessel diameter

11

Coronary arteries

supplies the heart with oxygenated blood

12

Thrombus

clot formed of blood and plaque attached to the inner wall of an artery or vein

13

occlusion

blockage as of an artery by fatty deposits

14

embolism

blockage of a vessel by a clot or foreign material brought to the site by the blood current

15

Risk of developing CAD

heredity and age
hypertension, obesity, lack of exercise, elevated blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, and cigarette smoking

16

Signs and Symptoms of CAD

chest pain, cardiac arrest (angina pectoris-chest pain)

17

Aneurysm

dilation, or ballooning of a weakened section of the wall of an artery
most common sites of aneurysms are the aorta and the brain

18

Dysrhythmia

a disturbance in heart rate and rhythm

19

In cardiac arrest...

rhythms that may be present when there is no pulse including ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, pulseless electrical activity, and asystole

20

Angina Pectoris

pain in the chest, occurring when blood supply to the heart is reduced and a portion of the heart muscle is not receiving enough O2

21

Acute Myocardial Infarction

condition in which a portion of the myocardium dies as a result of oxygen starvation; often called a heart attack

22

Sudden Death

cardiac arrest that occurs within 2 hours of the onset symptoms. the patient may have no prior symptoms of coronary artery disease

23

Congestive Heart Failure

failure of the heart to pump efficiently, leading to excessive blood or fluid in the lungs, body,or both

24

Signs and Symptoms of CHF

tachycardia
dysnea
normal or elevated blood pressure
cyanosis
Diaphoresis (profuse sweating) or cool and clammy skin
pulmonary edema
anxiety or confusion due to hypoxia
pedal edema
engorged, pulsation neck veins (late sign)
enlarged liver and spleen with abdominal distortion (late sign)

25

Chain of Survival for Cardiac Arrest

Immediate recognition and activation
early CPR
Rapid defibrillation
effective advanced life support
integrated post- cardiac arrest care

26

Ventricular Fibrillation (VF)

condition in which the heart's electrical impulses are disorganized, preventing the heart muscle from contracting normally

27

Ventricular Tachycardia (V-tach)

condition in which the heartbeat is quite rapid; if rapid enough, ventricular tachycardia will not allow the heart's chambers to fill with enough blood between beats to produce blood flow sufficient to meet the body's needs

28

Pulseless electrical activity (PEA)

condition in which the heart's electrical rhythm remains relatively normal, yet the mechanical pumping activity fails to follow the electrical activity, causing cardiac arrest

29

asystole

condition in which the heart has ceased generating electrical impulses