Hematologic and Renal Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematologic and Renal Emergencies Deck (17):

Blood Funtions

Control of bleeding by clotting
Delivery of oxygen to the cells
Removal of carbon dioxide from the cells
Removal and delivery of other waste products to organs that provide filtration and removal such as the kidneys and liver


Red Blood Cells

Makeup majority of cells in circulation and gives blood red color. contains hemoglobin


White Blood Cells

respond to infection and are mediators of the body's immune system response



fragments of larger cells that are crucial to the formation of clots



liquid in which the blood cells and platelets are suspended, containing dissolved nutrients and carries crucial proteins



lack of a normal number of red blood cells in the circulation.
acute anemia- may be result of trauma or sudden massive bleeding
chronic anemia- occurs over time and can be caused by conditions such heavy menstrual periods, slow gastrointestinal blood loss, or diseases that affect bone marrow or the structure of the hemoglobin molecule


Sickle Cell Anemia

Is inherited disease in which patients have a genetic defect in their hemoglobin that result in abnormal structure of the red blood cells.
African, Middle Eastern, or Indian descent are most common
Red blood cells shape of a sickle and do not survive in the circulation as long as normal RBC
blockages occur in body's small blood vessels


Complications of Sickle Cell Anemia

Destruction of the Spleen- blockages resulting in inability to fight infections
Sickle Cell Pain Crisis-severe pain in arms, legs, chest, and abdomen
Acute chest sydrome-shortness of breath and chest pain associated with hypoxia when blood vessels in lungs are blocked
Priapism- painful prolonged erections in males
Jaundice-liver overwhelmed by breakdown in RBCs resulting in yellowish skin


Renal Failure

occurs when the kidneys lose ability to adequately filter the blood and remove toxins and excess fluid from the body
Acute renal failure result from shock, toxin ingestion, and others. some patients can recover from renal failure if corrected quick.
Chronic Renal Failure-inherited diseases such as polycystic kidney disease. poorly controlled diabetes and or high blood pressure resulting in loss of normal renal functions


End-stage renal disease (ESRD)

irreversible renal failure to the extent that the kidneys can no longer provide adequate filtration and fluid balance to sustain life; survival with ESRD usually requires dialysis



process by which toxins and excess fluid are removed from the body by a medical system independent of the kidneys



most common form of dialysis at a specific place
dialysis machine pumps blood through specialized filters to remove the toxins and excess fluid
patient will either have:
specialized two-port catheter that is inserted in one of the major veins of the torso or have a special surgically created fistula in one of their extremities that connects arterial and venous blood flow


Peritoneal Dialysis

patient usually does on their own at home
several liter of dialysis solution run into the abdominal cavity and left in place for several hours absorbing waste then fluid is drained


Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

gravity exchange process for peritoneal dialysis in which a bag of dialysis fluid is raised above the level of the abdominal catheter to fill the abdominal cavity and then lowered below the level of the abdominal catheter to drain the fluid


Continuous Cycler-assisted Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD)

mechanical process for peritoneal dialysis in which a machine fills and empties abdominal cavity of dialysis solution



Bacterial infection within the peritoneal cavity


Most Transplanted organ