Bleeding and Shock Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bleeding and Shock Deck (26):
1

Arteries

Carry blood away from the heart
under great deal of pressure during heart contraction
has thick, muscular wall enabling it to dilate or constrict

2

Capillaries

microscopically small supplying all cells of the body with O2 and Nutrients. waste and CO2 are exchanged

3

Veins

carry blood back to the heart
have one-way valves preventing backflow of blood
blood is under much less pressure

4

function of blood

Transport of gases
nutrients
excretion
protection
regulation

5

Perfusion

supply of oxygen to, and removal of waste from, the body's cells and tissues as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries

6

hypoperfusion

body's inability to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients (shock)

7

Hemorrhage

severe bleeding
major cause of shock in trauma

8

External Bleeding

bleeding is anticipated or discovered
must use Standard Precautions
Arterial Bleeding
Venous Bleeding
Capillary Bleeding

9

Arterial Bleeding

bright red in color (O2 rich)
rapid and profuse, spurting with heartbeat

10

Venous Bleeding

dark red or maroon (deoxygenated)
steady flow usually easy to control
low pressure
if large enough may suck in air or debris possibly resulting in an embolism

11

Capillary Bleeding

slow and oozing
low pressure
usually minor and easily controlled

12

Pressure dressing

bulky dressing held in position with a tightly wrapped bandage, which applies pressure to help control bleeding

13

hemostatic agents

substances applies as powders, dressings, gauze, or bandages to open wounds to stop bleeding

14

Direct pressure

most common and effective way to control external bleeding

15

Elevation

has never been proven to decrease bleeding but if it can be done quickly and easily it makes sense to employ this method

16

Tourniquet

device used for bleeding control that constricts all blood flow to and from an extremity

17

Splinting

stabilizing broken bones will prevent further damage

18

Cold application

traditional method
cold minimizes swelling and reduces the bleeding by constricting the blood vessels

19

Epistaxis

Nosebleed
sit down and lean forward
apply direct pressure to fleshy portion of nostrils
keep calm
do not lean back
if unconscious or unable to control airway put in recovery positon and provide suction and aggressive airway management

20

Internal Bleeding

Damage to internal organs and large blood vessels
blood loss cannot be seen
severe internal blood loss may even occur from injuries to the extremities.

21

Compensated Shock

body senses the decrease in perfusion and attempts to compensate for it
patient will have increased HR and increased respirations

22

Decompensated Shock

body can no longer compensate for low blood volume or lack of perfusion. late signs of shock, such as falling BP

23

Irreversible Shock

Exists when body has lost battle to maintain perfusion to organ systems. cell damage occurs, especially in liver and kidneys.
even if adequate vital signs can be restored, patient may die days later du
"¿¿aged organs

24

Hypovolemic Shock

shock resulting from blood or fluid lose

25

Cardiogenic Shock

may develop in patients suffering a MI
develops from inadequate pumping of blood by heart
CHF may also cause shock
watch for low BP, pedal edema and other signs of heart failure

26

Neurogenic Shock

result from uncontrolled dilation of blood vessels due to nerve paralysis cuased by spinal cord injuries
dilation of blood vessels increases circulatory systems capacity to the point where available blood can no longer fill
sepsis (massive infection) or anaphylactic reaction, vasodilation may also cause shock