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Flashcards in Principles of Pathophysiology Deck (22):
1

Pathophysiology

study of how disease processes affect the function the body

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Metabolism

the cellular function of converting nutrients into energy

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Aerobic Metabolism

the cellular process in which oxygen is used to metabolize glucose. Energy is produced in an efficient manner with minimal waste products

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Anaerobic Metabolism

the cellular process in which glucose is metabolized into energy without oxygen. Energy is produced in an inefficient manner with many waste products

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FiO2

fraction of inspired oxygen; the concentration of O2 in the air we breathe

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Patent

open and clear; free from obstruction

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Tidal Volume

volume of air moved in one cycle of breathing

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Minute volume

amount of air breathed in during each respiration multiplied by the number of breaths per minute

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Dead Air Space

air that occupies the space between the mouth and alveoli but that does not actually reach the area of gas exchange

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Chemoreceptors

chemical sensors in the brain and blood vessels that identify changes levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide

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Plasma Oncotic Pressure

the pull exerted by large proteins in the plasm portion of the blood that tends to pull water from the body into the bloodstream

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Hydrostatic Pressure

pressure within a blood vessel that tends to push water out of the vessel

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Stretch Receptors

sensors in blood vessels that identify internal pressure

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Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)

pressure in the peripheral blood vessels that the heart must overcome in order to pump blood into the system

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Stroke Volume

amount of blood ejected from the heart in one contraction

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Cardiac Output

the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute

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V/Q Match

ventilation/perfusion match. this implies that the alveoli are supplied with enough air and that the air in the alveoli is matched with sufficient blood in the pulmonary capillaries to permit optimum exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

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Perfusion

the supply of oxygen to , and removal of wastes from, the cells and tissues of the boldy as a result of the flow of blood through the capillaries

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Hypoperfusion

inability of the body to adequately circulate blood to the body's cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrients also called shock (this is a life-threatening condition)

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Edema

swelling associated with the movement of water into the interstitual space

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Signs of Neurologic Impairment

Altered mental status, inability to speak or difficulty speaking, visual or hearing disturbance, inability to walk or difficulty walking, paralysis, weakness, loss of sensation, pupil changes

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Hypersensitivity

an exaggerated response by the immune system to a particular substance