Trauma to the Head, Neck, and Spine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Trauma to the Head, Neck, and Spine Deck (20):
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Nervous System

provide overall control of thought, sensation, and the body's voluntary and involuntary, motor functions, The components of the nervous system are the brain and the spinal cord as well as the nerves that enter and exit the brain spinal cord and extended to the various parts of the body

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Central Nervous System

the brain and the spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

Nerves that enter the exit the spinal cord between the vertebrae; the 12 pairs of cranial nerves that travel between the brain and organs without passing through the spinal cord; and all of the body's other motor and sensory nerves

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Autonomic nervous system

controls involunary functions

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Cranium

bony structure making up the forehead, top, back, and upper sides of the skull

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temporal bone

bone that forms part of the side of the skull and floor of the cranial cavity. there is a right and left temporal bone

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Temporomandibular joint

movable joint formed between the mandible and the temporal bone (TMJ)

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Malar

cheek bone (zygomatic bone)

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orbits

bony structures around the eyes; eye sockets

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cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord

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Spinous process

bony bump on a vertebra

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Concussion

mild closed head injury without detectable damage to the brain complete recovery is usually expected

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Contusion

brain injuries, bruised brain caused when the force of a blow to the head is great enough to rupture blood vessels

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Hematoma

head injury, collection of blood within the skull or brain
Subdural hematoma- collection of blood between the brain and the dura
epidural hematoma-blood between the dura and the skull
intracerebral hematoma- blood pools within the brain

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Intracranial Pressure (ICP)

pressure inside the skull

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Foramen Magnum

opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes from the brain

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Herniation

pushing of a portion of the brain through the foramen magnum as a result of increased intracranial pressure

patient may exibit decorticate or decerebrate posturing. may be neurological postureing, such as flexing the arms and wrists and extending the legs and feet (decorticate posture) or extending the arms with the shoulders rotated inward and wrists flexed and with the legs extended (decerebrate posture)

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Air embolism

bubble of air in the bloodsteam

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Dermatome

area of the skin that is innervated by a single spinal nerve

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Neurogenic Shock

state of shock caused by nerve paralysis that sometimes develops from spinal cord injuries