Obstetric and Gynecologic Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Obstetric and Gynecologic Emergencies Deck (39):
1

Labia

consist of tissues that protect the entrance to the birth canal, the urethral opening and the nerve-rich center of sexual stimulation, called the clitoris (found in the anterior aspect of the labia.

2

Perineum

soft tissue and muscle found between the vaginal opening and the anus. prone to tear during childbirth

3

mons pubis

layer of soft tissue that covers and protects the pubic symphysis. area where hair grows as a woman reaches puberty

4

vagina

birth canal, made up of smooth muscle, it connects the uterus to the outside world and will stretch to accommodate passage of the fetus during delivery
passageway for menstrual waste products leaving the uterus at the conclusion of the menstrual cycle

5

ovaries

small, round organs that are located on either side of most women's lower abdominal quadrants. responsible for producing ova (eggs) for conception. also produce many hormones necessary for the process of reproduction

6

Fallopian tubes

(oviducts)
connects ovaries to the uterus
if fertilization occurs it will most likely happen in these tubes

7

ectopic pregnancy

can occur if the ovum implants in the fallopian tubes
these tubes cannot expand like the uterus as the fetus develops and are vulnerable to rupture and severe bleeding

8

Uterus

Womb
muscular, hollow organ located along the midline in most womens lower abdominal quadrants
intended site for the fertilized egg to implant and develop into a fetus
able to stretch and grow

9

Cervix

muscular ring separates the vagina and the uterus
in none pregnant women it is constricted

10

Ovulation

Phase of the female reproductive cycle in which an ovum is released from the ovary

11

Embryo

the baby from fertilization to 8 weeks of development

12

Fetus

baby from 8 weeks of development to birth

13

Placenta

organ of pregnancy where exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes occurs between a mother and fetus
attached to the wall of the uterus
is expelled after the baby is born

14

umbilical cord

fetal structure containing blood vessels that carry blood to and from the placenta
1 inch wide and 22 inches long

15

Amniotic sac

"bag of water"
contains about 1 quart of liquid called amniotic fluid. allows the fetus to float during development, acts as a cushion between the fetus and minor injury, and helps maintain a constant fetal body temp.

16

Physiologic Changes of Pregnancy

Inside:
increased blood volume
Increased O2 demand/decreased lung capacity
Fetus growing uterus enlarging
growing uterus displaces GI tract
Increased heart rate
Ligaments stretched, carrying extra weight of fetus

Outside:
Pink coloration of skin
shortness of breath common
belly enlarging
nausea vomiting and heartburn
faster pulse "swayback" posture, back pain

17

Supine Hypotensive Syndrome

dizziness and a drop in blood pressure caused when the mother is in a supine position and the weight of the uterus, infant, placenta, and amniotic fluidcompress the inferior vena cava, reducing return of blood tot he heart and cardiac output.

18

Labor

three stages of delivery of a baby
First stage: regular contractions and the thinning and gradual dilation of the cervix and ends with cervix fully dilated
Second Stage: time when baby enters the bith canal until he is born
Third Stage: after baby is born and lasts until the afterbirth is delivered

19

afterbirth

placenta, membranes of the amniotic sac, part of the umbilical cord, and some tissues from the lining of the uterus that are deliverd after the birth of the baby.

20

Braxton-Hicks contractions

irregular prelabor contraction of the uterus

21

Lightening

sensation of the fetus moving from high in the abdomen to low in the birth canal

22

Meconium staining

amniotic fluid that is greenish or brownish-yellowrather than clear as a result of fetal defecation; an indication of possible maternal or fetal destress during labor

23

Crowning

when part of the baby is visible through the vaginal opening

24

Cephalic presentation

appears head first during birth. this is the normal presentation

25

Neonate

Newly born infant or an infant less than 1-month-old

26

APGAR Score

Appearance: blue or pale all over=0, extremities blue, trunk pink=1, pink all over=2

Pulse: 0=0, 100=2

Grimace: no reaction=0, facial grimace=1, sneeze, cough, or cry=2

Activity: no movement=0, only slight activity=1, moving around normally=2

Respiratory Effort: none=0, slow or irregular breathing, weak cry=1, Good breathing, strong cry=2

27

Inverted pyramid of neonatal resuscitation

Basic:
Drying, warming, positioning, suction, tactile stimulation.
Oxygen
Bag-Mask Ventilation
Chest Compressions

Advanced:
Intubation
Medications

28

Breech presentation

when the baby's buttocks or both legs appear first during birth

29

limb presentation

when an infant's limb protrudes from the vagina before the appearance of any other body part

30

prolapsed umbilical cord

when the umbilical cord presents first and is squeezed between the vaginal wall and the baby's head
oxygen supply to the baby may be totally interrupted

31

premature infant

any newborn weighing less than 5 1/2 pounds or born before the 37th week of pregnancy

32

Placenta previa

condition in which the placenta is formed in an abnormal location (low in the uterus and close to or over the cervical opening) that will not allow for a normal delivery of the fetus; a cause of excessive pre-birth bleeding

33

abruptio placentae

condition in which the placenta separate from the uterine wall; a cause of pre-birth bleeding

34

ectopic pregnancy

when implantation of the fertilized egg is not in the body of the uterus, occurring instead in the fallopian tube

35

eclampsia

severe complication of pregnancy that produces seizures and coma

36

preeclampsia

complication of pregnancy in which the woman retains large amounts of fluid and has hypertension. she may also experience seizures and/or coma during birth, which is very dangerous to the infant

37

abortion

spontaneous (miscarriage) or induced termination of pregnancy

38

spontaneous abortion

when the fetus and placenta deliver before the 28th week of pregnancy; commonly called a miscarriage

39

stillborn

born dead