cardiology - FA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in cardiology - FA Deck (34):
1

how can you assess the CV system of a cow from a distance

- oedema - brisket and intermandibular
- posture
- Resp effort
- condition, presenting signs, hx

2

how can you assess CV of a cow, 'hands on'

skin tenting - DH.
regional temp (ears etc) - perfusion
mm, CRT (conjunct, gingiva, vulva)
venous distention

3

if the mm are brick red - what are suspected causes

toxaemia
- salmon, pasteurellosis, MCF, IBR, infectious bov keratoconjunctivitis

4

if the mm are cyanotic - what might the signs be>

resp failure
nitrites or metaldehyde poison
congenital abn.

5

if the animal is jaundice - what are the suspicions

- hepatitis, lepto, haemolytic anaemia
- babesia, ragwort, kale, lupin, Cu+
- photosensitisation

6

what are the causes of haemorahaggic mm

anthrax
bracken
copper poisoning
leapt and mycotoxins

7

what HR is normal for calves and cows

calves = 100-120
cows = 50-80 (+ if high yielding)

8

where can you feel the pulse on a cow

middle coccygeal v (10cm below anus)
ext maxillary
cd auricular

9

in a normal cow how far up the jugular will the pulse remain normal

1/3. if any more than that = indicates high p

10

where would you locate the base and apex of the heart in the cow

base = 3rd-6th rib
apex = 6th rib where it articulates with sternum

11

where will you find PAM?

3-4th IC space

12

where will you find the tricuspid valve

4th rib, 10cm above sternum

13

what might causes a heart murmur

valvular endocarditis
- stenosis, regurg,

14

desc in a basic manner the way to tell systolic from pre-systolic to diastolic murmur

persist = brr-lub dub
systolic= lub, brr- dup
diastolic = lud-dub-brr

15

which valve is most commonly effected by endocarditis

R AV valve

16

how does endocarditis occur and what is the dx and tx

persistent bacteraemia (from mastitis, nephritis)
leads to shifting lameness from emboli
dx - blood culture

17

name some path which might cause endocarditis

truperella progenies
cl chauvoie
e coli
mycoplasma
strep and staph
mannheimia

18

congenital defect might also cause murmurs - name some

VSD
PDA
Patent FO
Tetralogy of ballot
aortic stenosis

19

anaemia can cause a murmur - what does it sound like

humming

20

what are some causes of myocardial weakness

septicaemia
deficiency - Cu, Se, VitE
poison
congen

21

what extra-cardia causes of murmur are there?

diaphragmatic hernia
ruminal tympany
oesoph obstruction

22

when are pericardial sounds heard

pansystolically
muffled, gurgle

23

what organisms that don't cause endocarditis can cause pericarditis

TB - SO DONT DRAIN IT
haemophilia somnus

24

what are the clinical signs of pericarditis

shallow breathing
abducted elbows

25

what are the major risks of pericarditis

rupture of coronary vessel of ventricle

26

what ar the signs fDCM in cattle and who gets it

2-3yo holsteins
certain bulls throw them
peripheral oedema
jug distension
rounded heart

27

how can rumenitits lead to Cd VC thrombosis

acidosis leading to rumentitis
local invasion of inflammation to liver --> abscess
thrombosis --> cd vC

28

why is pulmonary oedema only really seen in acute case?

compensatory inc in lymph drainage

29

what obvious signs of rest compromise can be seen as a result of CHF

- nasal d/c of palm oedema. frothy white
- bilat epistaxis from pulm embolism
tachypnoea

30

what signs can be palpated in the abdo of CHF>

ascites
hepatomegaly (RHS)

31

how do you tx CHF in cattle

essentially --> needs to go as fallen stock/if early enough get it onto the wagon to slaughert

32

what disease states can cause myocardial necrosis?

FMD
histophilus somni
clostridia (no chauvenoi)
vit e and se
fe+++ toxin piglets
porcine stress syndrome

33

what are the many names of myopathy caused by Vit E and Se deficiency (anti-oxidants)

pig = mulberry heart
calf= white muscle dz
still lamb dz
nutritional muscular dystrophy

34

name some ddx for sudden death of cattle (and sheep)

- haem - calving, NSAID ulcer
- plant (yew) toxicity
- lightening
- electrocution
- hypo-mg
- hypo-ca
- toxaemia
- bloat
- luck leg and black dz
- anthrax