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Flashcards in Dz-es of the UT Deck (23):
1

clinical signs of a UTI are

PUPD
olig/anuria
abdo pain
HL lameness
collapse

2

what investigations are indicated in urinary tract dz

Hx, CE, obs, catheterise
labs - haematology, biochem, e-lytes, urinalysis, culture, bsy
imaging - U/S, xray, cystoscopy

3

how big should the kidneys normally be

2.5 x L2 vertebra *NB remember R is cRanial*

4

what is a pneumocytogram

putting 10ml of NO into the bladder (stop if pain/R)

5

what is a contrast cystogram

putting 10mls of 150mg/ml of iodine in to serve as a good contrast to other tissues

6

what is a double contrast xray

both air and iodine in bladder

7

what is an IV urogram

inj contrast IV and pneumo-bladder
shows the size of kidneys and the flow of the ureters
wait 10 mins though first
also give an enema (so easier to see if bowel empty)

8

how cab you radiograph the urethra

retrograde urethrogram (using contrast)

9

what suture is indicated in bladder sx

mono-abs

10

give 3 bsy methds - to be used on the kidney

trucut - u/s guidance, avoid hlius!
FNA
surgical nephrotomy - wedge, need to tourniquet renal a+v to reduce supply by 20%!

11

what are the signs of nephroliths

abdo pain, haematuria, recurrent UTI, azotaemia

12

what type of nephrolith can be medically tx

oxolates

13

if the crystals in the urinary tract are not visible on xray, how might they be viewed

via u/s due to the shadowing effect

14

what is the most radio-opaque and what is the most radio-lucent urinary crystal

opaque = oxalate
lucent = urate
middle = cysteine

15

most 1ry neoplasias of the kidney are malignant, but 2ry ones are more common. what tx options are there

unilat nephrectomy
chemo (if lymphoma)
PTS

16

why in urinary tract sx should a catheter always be plpaced throughout recovery

to assess output vs input

17

why would you use a tube cystotomy (thru body wall)

if urethra blocked

18

what is the most common and malign neoplasia of the bladder

TCC
*if benign vers then remove over 75% of bladder tissue*

19

what are the 3 main sections of the male urethra

prostatic - PX
pelvic - membranous and vulnerable to injury if pelvic fx
penile - cavernous, in the Os penis so cant distend if gets blocked!

20

why are IVFT often required in urinary tract dzes

retention causes acid:base balance upset --> acidosis/alkalosis
also - azotaemia (all types)
inc urea ==> K++ often causes cardiac arrhythmias (this needs sorting)

21

what is a urethrostomy and where is it recom in C+D

permenant opening - usually in boys if suffered penile trauma (makes them wee like a girl - Oliver the Dog)
D - scrotal (must be castrated though)
C - perineal

22

what predisposes cats to feline urethra obstruction

- toms
- dry diets
- stress

23

what is the most common tx plan for a bicth with a SCC or TCC (most common pres) of the urethra

- cystotomy tube
- no sx normally as too close to trigone
- palliative care