FA toxicology Flashcards Preview

VSCI300 MOD > FA toxicology > Flashcards

Flashcards in FA toxicology Deck (22):
1

name 4 mycotoxins

1. aflatoxins
2. ergot
3. ZON
4. DON

2

what fungi produces aflatoxins

aspergillus

3

what produces ergot toxin?

claviceps fungi

4

what does aflatoxins cause

dec appetite, reduced yeild and milk residues

5

what does ergot cause?

hyperthermia, reduced milk yeild, poor fertility and gangrene at extremities

6

what does ZON cause?

hyperthermia, gilts, hyper-oestrogenism, nymphomania, vulva swelling

7

what produces ZON and DON?

fusarium fungi

8

what does DON do?

reduces feed intake and milk production,
d+

9

name 2 chemical types which block ACh-Esterases, cont nerve stimulation, discharge, XS salivation, paralysis

OPs and carbamates
treat with anti-cholinergic (atropine) and charcoal

10

when are nitrates at highest risk of causing disease?

after rain following dry spell, fertilisers (XS)

11

what doe nitrates do?

become nitrites which cause mHb (--> vasodil, anorexia, cyanosis, inc BP, HR, RR)
treat with methylene blue i.v

12

what dz and tx is seen for lead ingestion

dz = fasciculations, grinding, staggers, blind + dil pupils
tx = sedate (diaz), MgSO4, Ca++

13

what dz and tx is seen for copper ingestion?

dz = chronic intox in liver - haemolytic anaemia, jaundice, icterus, hepatomegaly
tx = shock IVFT or binding with molybdenum and sulfur

14

name 5 plants which are toxic to ruminants (and other spp)

1. ragwort
2. bracken
3. yew
4. tannins - oak
5. rhododedndron
6. foxglove
7. st johns wort

15

what dz does ragwort ingestion cause?

liver failure
jaundice
photosensitivity
d+++
staggering
blindness

16

what dz does bracken cause?

BM depression - thrombocytopenia
anorexia
d++
weak
GI tumours
enzootic haematuria

17

what does yew cause?

cardiac depression
dyspnoea
death

18

what damage do tannins cause?

nephrotoxic
anorexia
constipation
bloody d++

19

what animal is most at risk of rhododendrum toxicity which results in XS salivation, v++, staggers

goats

20

what is another name for foxglove?

digitalis purpura

21

st johns wort has similar signs to another plant toxin, which one?

ragwort. both cause liver failure.

22

treatment (generic) from ingested toxins?

emesis
activated charcoal
often atropine (to inc HR and red XS saliva)
vit B + glucose good for damaged livers