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Flashcards in SA derm Deck (110):
1

when looking for parasites down the LM what does the iris diaphragm do?

alter the appearance. if closed - more dark and 'contrasty' if open paler

2

name the 2 cat flea identifiable combs

genal comb - on head/'nose'
pronotal comb - 1st thoracic segment

3

name 2 lice of the dog (one biting, one chewing) and a cat louse

dog
- biting = trichodectes canis
- chewing - linognathus setosus

cat
- biting = felicola subrostratus

4

how many legs do fleas and lice have

6

5

how many legs do mites have. which mite only has 6?

8
trombicula

6

which mites have long legs

surface dwellers (otodectes, cheyletiella, trombicula)

7

what do most mite eggs look like, except demodex canis

oval
d. canis = lemon

8

what is characterisitic about louse eggs

attached to hairs + operculum

9

what 4 tests are used for ectoparasite finding

collect the scale - flea comb, tape, light scrape
direct smear
skin scrape
hair pluck

10

what might you find on scale exaination

felicola subrostrata
trichodectes canis
linognathus spp
cheyletiella
lice eggs

11

what ectoparasites might you see on a smear

otodectes (if in the ear..)
or demodex from any ruptured pustule

12

what mite are you looking for with a trichogram

demodex

13

what else can a trichogram show you

what stage hair is at
- anagen (growing), fat bulb
- telogen (resting) - tapered bulb

14

why is liquid paraffin used for mite, lice, etc prep and collection

mites stay alive
tolerated on skin

15

why would KOH be used instead of paraffin

to visualise better, but kills mites

16

desc how to do both a superficial scrap and a deep one

superficial - from lesions no oozing. put paraffin/KOH on skin, scrape and more oil/KOH on slide

deep - squeeze skin and add oil/KOH, +++ scrapes from new lesions, until capillary ooze

17

are sarcoptes ELISA results reliable

not really. false -ves early in dz and false + in atopic dogs

18

name 4 cytology tests

tape
cotton smear
impression smear
FNA

19

when should you culture a sample

if you see rods
degenerative PMNs
of dont find any bacteria
recurring in fection
all deep infections

20

culture samples are swabs and biopsies. what areas are they each best at getting samples from

swabs - intact lesions, ears, sinus

biopsy - deep inf, acral lick, discharging lesions

21

what does wood's lambs and DTM test for

dermatophytes

22

what are the pros/cons with dermatophyte culture

dont ID spp
contami/infection
cheap, easy, reliable

23

what are the different biopsy tech

punch
tru cut
wedge
sx

24

what conditions do WHWT commonly suffer fro

atopic derm
malassezia derm
demodecosis
ichthyosis

25

why do sertoli cell tumours cause alopecia

oestrogenising effects/lack of testosterone

26

why would color of dog skin matter with SCC

often UV-induced --> depig skin, white coat or alopecic areas +++

sponaneous forms are oral or ungual

27

what is a good way of assessing 'itchiness' from owners

visual analogue score - 1--> 10. as in 1 - never
10 - keeps you up at nght, dog not sleeping

28

describing skin lesions, you need what elements

- distrubution (focal)
- description - 1ry or 2ry lesion (alopecia)
- location (cd-d rump)
- evolution (eg papules --> crusts)

29

how can you assess whether cutaeneous haem of erythemia

press slide on it - if blanches = erythema (blood in vessels)

30

desc where fleas, cheyletiella and sarcoptic mange nfection usually occur

fleas = dorsal lumbar/L-S and inner thigh
cheyletiella= dorsal back
sarcoptes = ventral thorax/abdo and eyes and ears

31

what information can be acq from a hair examination

color, textures changes
stage of grwoth - telogen easily pulled out
broken?
follicular casts (demodex, pyoderma, malassezia)

32

what are the main 4 ddx of pruritis

para
inf
hypersens/allergy
misc

33

what is the pathogenesis of flea infestations

Fe-def in young animals
anaemia
FAD
IH for diplydium caninum
transmit bartonella

34

what are the 1ry signs of FAD

pruritits, papules, erythema

35

how long from first blood meal until mating and eggs laid from fleas

24 hrs

36

descr a basic flea life cycle

adults on host 1 wk
eggs in eviron (R) - 10d
larvae feed on environ/flea poo
2-3wks pupate (R+)
1wk-100d later = adults

37

desc a basic flea control protocol

both environ + animal = adulticide + IGR
adulticides: fipronil, selamectin, imidacloprid, fluralaner
IGRs:methoprene (makes frontline combo) and lufenurun (program)
house - permethrins

38

how do you tx FAD - if it tkes 3-4mths to rid fleas from a household

tx as above
wash - to rid of saliva
use program in future to prevent

39

name the feline demodex

d. gatoi (superficial) or d. cati

40

desc basic lifecycle for mites

adults on host
eggs on hair or in burrow (R)
larvae
nymphs
2-6wks

41

what are the signs of sarcoptes

pruritis, crusts, scale, 2ry alopecia,

42

what are the sign of cheyletiella

trunk scale and erythema and scale

43

name 2 ear mites which cause waxy discharge

otodectes canis
psoroptes

44

what are the signs of suckng lice, linognathus setosus

pruritis and ill thrift - rare tho

45

what are the signs of biting lice, trichodectes and felicola

pruritis, scaling, poor coat qual

46

can fipronil be used in rabbits

no

47

what is fipronil licensed for

fleas, tick, lice and cheyletiella mites and harvest mites

48

imidacloprmid is only licesed for fleas and lice in rabbits - how do you tx mite and tick infections

if with MOX (=advocate)

49

what para tx are toxic to cats

permethrin
amitraz
~IVM

50

whats the best way to treat demodex in cats

lime sulfur baths

51

how do you tx trombicula

fiprinol spray

52

what endoparasites might cause pododermatitis and what tx

uncinaria stenophala
fenbendazole

53

what are common causes of bacteria pyoderma

staph pseudointermedius
s aurea, s hyicus

54

what are the classifications of pyoderma

surface - epidermis, more accurate descr = overgrowth
superficial folliculitis = epid with follicles
deep folliculitis and furunculosis = epid, follicles, dermis and s/c fat

55

what are 'hot spots'

pyotraumatic derm
flat moist erosions with erythematous outline

56

what is the proper word for skin fold pyoderma

intertrigo

57

what does BOGS stand for

bact overgrowth syndrome - result of underlying atopic derm

58

most superficial pyoderms are 2ry, name the common 1ry causes

allergy
ectopara
infections
immune suppression

59

what are the signs of superficial pyoderma

macules, papules, pustul, hyperpig, erosions

60

what are the signs of deep pyoderma

systemic illness - fever, lymphadenopathy
pyogranulomatous inflm
s. pseudintermedius or psedomonas
sinus tracts, haem+ bullae

61

what ar the signs of malassezia inflm and tx

always 2ry as normally commensal
ear, v neck, paws, axilla, groin
greasy, erythema, otitis
tx- chlorhex and miconazole shampoo

62

what is the pathogenesis of canine AD (atopic derm)

defective cutaenous barrier
microbial colonisation
hypersensitivity to food/enviro allergens

63

when do most dogs develop AD

64

what are the clinical signs of cAD

pruritis - 1r sign!
erythema, saliva stains, papules
hot spots/acra lick
alopecia, scaling, hyperpigmentation
furunculosis or interdigital abscess

65

is cAD respon to gcorticoids?

y!

66

how do you ID food allergy

diet trial - home or commercial need 6wks.
or hydrolysed diet - less allergenic. then if signs stopped --> back on old diet, if start again, back to trial

67

what causes contact derm

sensitisation to norm,

68

what neoplasm appears like derm

cutaenous lymphoma

69

what does CARF stand for

cutaneous adv reaction to food

70

what is the basic approach to pruritis cases

ID para, tx 2ry infections, exclude with trials - for food, fleas or mange.
if suspect AD --> labs for inc IgE

71

management - of cAD

improve barrier fct -
ID + control flare factors (food, para, environ)
immunotherapy - to desensitise (ASIT)
anti-inflm drugs

72

tx of cAD

est-FAs,
topical emollients, vitE (anti-oxid), antimicrobials,
c-steroids (flare busters)
--- to help barrier and reduce pruritis

73

how can steroids be used in a safer way

lowest tx dose
no sudden changes
in combo with 'steroid sparing' tx eg anti-histamines
seasonal - when worsens

74

what common medication is given for AD

cyclosporin (atopica)
- delayed response, GE common SE

protopic (tacrolimus)
- less SE, not licensed tho

aclactinib (apoquel)
- JAK inhib so reduces inflm cytokine, not for small digs

75

name some cyclosporin drug interactions

inhibit metab - azoles, metaclopramide

inc metab - rifampin, phenobarb

IVM inc adverse signs

76

are anti-histamines used

yes, variable reponse. not licensed. use with EFAs and gcort
chlorphenamine

77

what are the classifications of alopecia

- self induced
- spontaneous
- inflm (non-symmet)
- non-inflm (symmet)

78

how does 'partial' alopecia appear

thinning of hair in area, not hypotrichosis though (thats congenital)

79

what 2 major types of demodex are there?

long bodied - d. canis and cati (follicles)
short bodied - d. gatoi (superficial)

80

what are the 2 clinical syndromes of canine demidecosis

juvenile - generalised and localised forms.
adult - either continuation of juvenile generalised form or onset due to underlying immunosuppressive process

81

what is the best tx for demodecosis

amitraz (not cats or Chihuahua)
fluralaner (bravecto, new)

82

when can tx for demidecosis stop

3 x neg skin scrapes over 3wks min

83

name a common cause of canine dermatophytosis

microsporum canis

84

how is dematophytosis dx

wood lamp - 50% usually fluoresce green
trichography - arthrospores around shaft look like bubbles
dermatophyte test medium (DTM) - yellow --> red = pos

85

what is the best tx of dermatophytosis

itraconazole
or topical miconazole + chlorehxadine shampoo

86

name 2 immune mediated forms of alopecia and briefly desc

dermatomyositis - collies skin and muscle. signs = myositis and alopecia, erythema, crusting. tx = predn

alopecia areata - lymphocytic attack on hair bulb - bsy dx.

87

name some causes of hair cycle arrest

injection and post-clipping
endocrinopathies (HAC, hypothyr, hyperoestro)
alopecia x
telogen defluxation
feline paraneoplastic alopecia

88

what is injection alopecia

follicular atrophy susp from act of steroid inj and vasculitis from inj

89

what are the general signs of an endocrinopathy-induced alopecia

- symmetri, bilat, non-infla
- dull, dry, faded
- fails to regrow after clipping
- hyperpigmentation
- scaling + or ++
- easily bruised and por healing

90

what is alopecia X

in plush coated dogs, juvenile onset loss of 1ry hairs --> retain puppy coat --> complete alopecia of the trunk only

91

what is telogen defluxaion

following from systemic dz etc the hairs 'rested' so when new hairs begni to grow, they push all the telogen hairs out = alopecia after the event (chemo)

92

what is feline paraneoplastic alopecia

assoc with panc/bile duct carcinoma
ventral abdo and limb alopecia which is smooth, shiny and translucent!

93

what breeds get post-clipping alopecia

arctic. v long telogen phase, hence the blowing..

94

are congenital alpecia norm

yes in some breeds.. still predisp to inf

95

what is pattern baldness and is it an issue

no its not. dont know why but alopecia in certain areas (vary / breed)

96

desc follicular dysplasia

normal puppy coat --> breaks and lost --> scaling and 2ry inf
regrowth = weird

97

what is cyclical flank alopecia

as it says,.. seasonal alopecia. no idea wy - try melatonin when unsure if needs be

98

what is effluvium

anagen defluxion. systemic illnesses.

99

what is sebaceous adenitis

predis = viszla, poodles, samoyeds
lymphocytic inflm directed at seb glands. signs - MF alopecia, 'frond-like' scales, 2ry bact inf

100

what tx for scaling ++

keratolytic shampoo + moisturising
essential FA suppl
tx 2ry bacterial inf

101

what are the signs of cutaenous epitheliotropic lymphoma

diffuse alopecia, erythema, scaling, ulcers, plaques +- prurits

102

what is traction alopecia

from rubbing - pos collar

103

name the 4 main feline reaction patterns

- self induced
- head and neck - v pruritic
- miliary - papular crusts
- eosinphillic granuloma complex

104

what are the causes and signs of self induced alopecia in cats

- pruritis --> over grooming, but will be symmetrical as cats are thorough
- restricted to the sites the cat can reach
- furballs, fur in mouth/teeth

105

whats might cause head and neck pruritis

otodectes cyanosis
neotrombicula
bacteria
oro-facial pain syndrome in burmese cats

106

what causes miliary dermatits

otodectes cyanosis
neotrombicula
bacterial
dermatophytosis

107

what is the eosinophic granuloma complex

- eosinophilic plaques
- eosino granuloma
- eosinophillic (indolent) ulcer
seen in allergic skin condition and assoc with overgrooming

108

what are the eosinophillic plaques

- raised alopecic plaques (pruritic), ventral body.

109

what are the eosinophillic granulomas

at different areas, young get = linear, non ulcerated ones. other get = proliferative oral ones - pruritic i 2ry infection too
can spontaneously regress.

110

what are eosinophilic ulcers/indolent

erythematous ulcer on upper lip