Pregnancy and neonatology - equine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pregnancy and neonatology - equine Deck (128):
1

how long is the equine preen in days

336d

2

are overdue foals a cause for concern? and why

no. variable time to conception

3

where does fertilisation occur?

ampulla

4

how long does the embryo remain in the oviduct until it enters the uterus

5-6d

5

why does the eq conceptus migrate around the uterus

to release maternal recogn of pregnancy hormone to the endometrium which prevents the release of PGs

6

when does the eq conceptus fix into position and where

d15-16 at the base of a horn

7

when does eq placental attachment begin

d36

8

what also occurs at the same time of placental attachment

production of the endometrial cups

9

what do the endometrial cups secrete

eCG

10

what is the purpose of eCG

to maintain primary CL and encourage formation of 2ry CL

11

between the prog from CL and eCG from endometrial cups, how long do they support the preg

5mths

12

how long does the maternal recog of pregnancy prevent regression of CL

14d+

13

when do the cups degenerate

d70-150

14

after d200 when all the CLs are degenerate what maintains the pregn

foetal placental progesterone

15

what is the significance of the endometrial cups wrt abortion

once in place the mare will not cycle until next year. this isn't good if you want to breed her this year - so do the scan before d35

16

what is the first sign of successful conception

failure to run to oestrous

17

how can you determine pregnancy using lab results

blood samples - eCG from d45-90; oestrogen sulphate d120+
urine - oestrogen sulphate d150+
faecal - oestrogen sulphate, not v reliable

18

describe the theory of rectal palpation (clinical skills)

lube
insert arm
empty any faeces
feel for intercornual lig the horns bend up
follow horns to softly feel ovaries
any contractions - remove arm back
assess cervix, ovaries and uterine tone

19

when can most people rectally pregnancy dx

d40

20

when can most people undertake rectal u/s

d10+ be careful though

21

what age is the first scan post-mating

d14 (and d16 to check if twins, up to here they are motile, so will have moved around each other)

22

at what age of the embryo is the heartbeat scan

d24. also another opportunity to check for twins

23

is a 3rd scan necessary?

no - death unlikely now BUT if you want - at 6wks

24

what size will the 'embryo cyst' be at d14, d16, d25

d14 - 1cm
d16 - 1.5cm
d25 - 3cm

25

if the O will only pay for 1 x scan - when should it be?

d28-35. can check alive, check for twins

26

when would transabdo scanning be implemented to look at a foetus

6mths +

27

when is early embryonic death classified from; when is abortion and when is still birth

EED = d0-40
abortion = d40-300
stillbirth = d300+ (gestation = 336, foal could not survive here, so not strictly speaking still birth - definitions change!!!)

28

what re the common causes of pregnancy failure

viral - EHV-1 and EVA, bacterial, fungal, maternal illness/stress, twins, abnormalities, umbilical torsion

29

what are the causes of EED

older mares
breeding on foal heat
congenital abn
fibrotic/inflamed uterus

30

describe the properties of EHV-1 and abortion
- when abortion seen
- transmission
- dx
- tx
- prevention

ubiquitous,
late abortion >5mth - foal may be alive, but will shortly die
transmission = resp, aborted material, vaginal d/c
n-pharyngeal swap or aborted material PCR
no tx, just separated mares from young stock
prev = vaca @ 5, 7, 9 mth of pregnancy

31

describe the properties of EVA
- dx, tx, prevention..

Notifiable in stallions and mares mated wi last 14d
stallions become persistent shedders
mares recover
vaccine available but test beforehand

32

what are the common causes of bacterial abortion

e coli
strep
staph
sometimes salmonella and lepto

33

how do bacteria cause abortions

ascendng infections, haematogenous spread and at breeding. tx with abx and NSAIDs

34

what is the only common cause of fungal abortion

aspergillus

35

why can't mares have twins

placenta needs to be attached to 70% of foal to provide adequate nutrition

36

are unilateral or bilaterally distributed twins more likely to survive

unilateral as because of the shared space, the one is mor likely to die sooner (thus not compete for space when actually dead..)

37

what is the % likelihood of a twin pregnancy producing 1 x live foal

63%

38

to complete a twin reduction whats necesary

to relax rectum, give NSAIDs to prevent inflammation damaging remaining foal and 'pop' or damage it. check again in 24hrs to check successful

39

often there are not many signs of abortion, unless the mare is systemically ill (and that is the cause of the abortion)

vaginal d/c
running milk (prematurely)
colic/foaling signs

40

occasionally need to induce abortion- how would you do it?

3mth = repeated PG inj (2x/day bw d80-150) - abort after 2-5d
dilation of cervix + uterine lavage
transabdominal inj of KCl into f. heart
dislocate f. neck per rectum

41

how would you induce foaling

inj 1-2ml oxytocin very 20 min until starts to foal (mare must be nearly ready though - risk of rupture, torsion, dystocia, retained membranes!)

42

when is a female horse called a mare, and when a filly?

4yo = mare

43

how do you desc the oestrous of the mare

long day poly oestrous

44

what is the transitional period of mare oestrous

beginning and end of season (summer) where irregular cycling - about 6wks. in this period transitional follicles are seen, but none ovulate

45

when is puberty in the filly

12-24mo

46

how long is the oestrous cycle

21d

47

oestrous lasts ?

4-6d (longer and weaker in spring, shorter and stronger in autumn)

48

when is the mare receptive to the stallion

more than 24hrs before she ovulates! which means during the first 1-5days of oestrous ish

49

how big is the dominant follicle when it ovulates

>35mm

50

how long is the CL NOT responsive to PGs

3-4d

51

when does the endometrium start to produce PGs

d15+ --> luteolysis

52

what is the common trade name for PG

estrumate

53

what is the common trade name for progesterone

regumate

54

why might you use PG injections to regulate oestrous

induce luteolysis to get oestrous to commence in 3-5d
(also to induce abortion)

55

why might you use progestogens to regulate oestrous

to suppress it - upon withdrawal, oestrous will commence shortly
PRID used in cattle

56

what is the purpose of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (this is a GnRH natural hormone0

given in oestrous to encourage the dominant follicle to ovulate wi 24hrs (so mate immediately - as won't accept him 24hrs before ovulation!!)

57

name a common trade name for GnRH analogue

deslorelin

58

when do you give GnRH analogue to manipulate equine oestrous

implant, s/c when follicle >30mm (dominant just about to ovulate) - will induce in 48hrs. takes a little longer the eCG

59

how do people bring the breeding season forward

artificial lighting over winter: 16hrs light, 8 hrs dark, 2-4wks before winter solstice - mares ovulate 10wks later

60

how long is the unfert oocyte live for

12 hrs

61

how long do sperm live

48hrs - so mate 24-48hrs before ovulation

62

how can you tell when a mare is in oestrous by scannig

dom follicle in 1 x ovary
uterine oedema - cartwheel appearance (this decreases 24hrs before ovulation)
soft cervix - droopy folds,
behaviour

63

what is a general protocol if, upon scanning the mare is in oestrous and when she isn't

if she is = scan again in 24 hrs to see if ovulated
if she isn't = give PG and scan in 3-5d to see if in oestrous

64

what signs from the dom follicle indicate imminent ovulation

pointing and softening

65

how does the CL appear on scan

hyperechogenic surrounded by follicles developing

66

when is it worth scanning post-mating

12-48 hrs after - assess if she ovulated, if not mate again; to see if twin ovulation and check for fluid in uterine lumen --> endometritis (common)

67

what are the 3 preventative mechanism of bacterial entry to the uterus

1. vulva seal
2. vestibular seal
3. cervical competence

68

what happens when the 3 mechanisms preventing bacterial entry to the uterus fail (don't say bacteria gets in)

- pneumovagina --> predisposes to urovagina --> cervicitis and bacterial contamination
this leads to endometritis which = failure of pregnancy

69

whats the ideal mare perineal conformation

top of vulva level with the ischium
no more than 4cm of the vulva over the pelvic brim
no greater than 10 degree slope of the vulva

70

how do you correct a poor vulva conformatin

caslicks vulvoplasty
- under LA and sedation
- remove sutures after 2wks
- need to be re-oponed before foaling

71

how do you correct a persistent CL

PG

72

how do you correct anovulatory follicles

these just get massive and do nothing
either regress in 4-6wks OR give PG and hope responds

73

granulose cell tumour

signs are either nymphomania or stallion like behaviour
dx by scanning and anti-mullerian hormone in blood

74

why is endometritis a big issue

doesnt prevent conception
DOES prevent implantation and inflammatory PGs may speed up luteolysis

75

what are the 3 types of endometritis

1. chronic infectious metritis
2. free fluid in the lime
3. mating induced endometritis

76

what are the causes of chronic infectious metritis

- poor perineal conformation
- reduced uterine immune defence
- strep. zooepidemicus, e coli, pseudomonas, klebsiella, some fungi
- venereal dz = contagious equine metritis = notifiable!

77

what are the causes of free fluid in the uterine lume

- from oestrous uterine oedema
- sterile but good to grow bacteria
- inflammatory itself to the endometrium
- delayed clearance due to poor motility

78

what are the reasons behind mating induced endometritis

- semen in inflam
- abnormal uterine defences may reduce ability to cope with normal inflammation (from examination, mating, foaling..)

79

if you ID endometritis what do you do

uterine swab and smear
cytology
use a speculum or at least a guard
biopsy
tx BEFORE d5 as the conceptus is stallion the oviducts
tx = lavage, oxytocin, intrauterine abx, AI next time

80

what is chronic degenerative endometrial disease

progressive deign of endometrium, replaced by fibrosis
from 11yo+
pregnancy slows progression (e.g. brood mares get it later)

81

uterine cysts are a cause of infertility Y or N

NOT. they just look like follicles

82

what are the common pre-breeding disease clearances protocols

- clitoral swab for CEM, klebsiella, pseudominas
- blood for EVA
- strangles serology

83

what is the diff bw premature and dysmature

pre - foal

84

what are the signs of 'immaturity' in a foal

domed head
floppy ears
silky hair
low both
long time to stand weak
tendon laxity
incomplete ossification of tars + carpal bones
if severe = index cortisol response and near/renal/endocrine/CV balance

85

what type of placenta does a horse have? whats does this mean for the foal

diffuse epitheliochorial
no Ab transfer, NEEDS colostrum

86

what age is foal most at risk of dz

2mo as that when maternal levels of IgG fall, and foals haven't increased enough

87

what is the half life of maternal IgG in foal

20d

88

how is colostrum absorbed

by special enterocytes via pinocytosis, the only live for 24hrs max, therefore max abs is

89

how much colostrum should foal get wi first 6hrs>

1L minumum

90

when is the best time to test for colostrum uptake and how?

at 12ho as then time to orally top up before 24hrs. the peak IgG is at 18ho

how = ELISA (SNAP) - expensive,
ZnSO4 tub,
TP or Tot globulin,
glutaraldehyde coagulation (inacc if DH)

91

what parameter defines FPT of IgG

92

how soon after birth should a foal have a suck reflex, stand and suck

20min = sucking reflex
1hr = stand
2hr = suck

93

if a 'healthy' foal appears not to suck much should you tube it>

Yes always, RF to septicaemia too great, better safe than sorry approach

94

when, why and how do you give plasma tx to a foal

- after 24ho if FPT recognised, if foal immunodef syndrome
- immunoglob, ag, ab
- 3L mare blood IV after it has settled and separated

95

what is the norm foal neonate HR, temp and RR

temp = 37.2-38.9 (adult - 36.5-38.4)
HR (birth) = 40-80; (1wo)= 60-100 (adult = 30)
RR (birth) = 45-60; (1wo) = 35-40; (adult = 15)

96

by how old should meconium be passed by

24ho

97

when should urine be passed by

6-10 ho (colt

98

what is the av birth weight

50kg, 1kg av gain per day

99

how do you ID sepsis

blood culture - not gonna be great if you've been giving abx remember
- umb infection (u/s)
- pneumonia (xray, blood gases)
- arthritis/osteomyelitis (synovial fluid analysis/xray)

100

how does bacterial and aspiration pneumonia appear on xray

focal, ventral bronchioalvlae and hilar area

101

how does viral pneumonia present on xray

diffuse and intersitial

102

how does atelectasis appear on xray

just alveolar, bronchi are clear

103

what basic tx will a septic foal recieve

ABX (ahminoglycosides - dont cause RF; penicillin)
IVFT
NSAID - flunixin
anti-ulcer sucralfate
intensive nursing -
20%Bwt in milk/d
circulatory and resp support (dobutamine, and b-dilators, postural, i/n O2)
diuretics is oliguria persists

104

what is the most common cause of a 'weak, depressed, off suck'foal?

septicaemia

105

what are the common pathogens which cause septicaemia?

gram - = e coli, actinobaccilus, salmonella, proteus, klebsiella,
gram + = haemolytic strep and staph and clostridia

106

what gram does penicillin affect

gram +

107

what gram does gentamicin affects

gram -

108

what ar the clinical signs of septicameia

- injected sclera (v bloody conjunctiva)
- inc RR and effort
- not consistent temp
- severe lameness, joint swelling
- hypopyon (pus in anterior chamber of eye)
- congested, dark mm and petechial haem +

109

what is the pathogenesis of SIRS

systemic inflammatory response syndrome
- Ag attack emphases --> cytokines produced
- inflam mediators cause +++ vasodil
- inc BMR
- inc CO, initially (hyper dynamic) THEN gives up (hypo dynamic) after this = refractory = give up..
- = multiple organ failure and ..death

110

what are the ddx for respiratory signs in a foal (other than septicaemia..)

viral, bacterial pneumonia, meconium aspiration, pneumo/haemothorax, pulmonary hypertension and central rest depression

111

in older (arab) foals with recurrent respiratory infections, what should you be concerned about?

SCID

112

what is SCID and how to dx

failure to produce B and T l# that function
autosomal recessive n arabs/x
apparent at 2mo+
lymphopaenia EVEN if WBCC normal!
only confirm dx on PM

113

what is perinatal asphyxia syndrome (PAS)?

'dummy foals' due to hypoxic ischaemic encephalotopathy
- from repercussion injury to brain, kidneys, GI in utero OR at birth

114

how do you tx PAS

basic care as norm, good px if NOT septic too
give dimethyl sulfoxide IV for the cerebral oedema

115

what are the presenting signs of a rupture bladder in a foal and what dx signs are found

- dysuria at 2-3do; abode distention develops
- dx = post-renal azotaemia as urine equilibrates with serum e-lytes; u/s = fluid

116

what is ban about a normal foals creatinine and urea

?creatinine = 40% higher than adults
urea = v low due to liquid diet
and proteinuria Normal from d1-3

117

why is it impt to stabilise the foal before operating on the bladder

because the - hyperkalaemic = induce arrhythmias so give 0.9 saline w glucose
- resp distress and atelectasis needs to be corrected - give O2, IPPV
- remove abdo fluid
- IVFT for acidosis too

118

what are some ddx of a foal with colic

- meconium impaction
- ruptured bladder
- overfeeding/lactose into (indicated if worsens after feeding)
- gastric ulcers
- obstruction
- congen

119

what are 4 poss causes of jaundice and paresis

tyzzers dz
EHV-1
sepsis
XS Fe++

120

what are 2 causes of anaemia in the foal

haem+
hemolysis

121

the mare of a foal with neonatal isoerythrolysis can be stripped out and the foal put back, how can you tell when this is safe

agglut test with foal blood and colostrum - if agglut - not safe.

122

if you need to give an NI foal and transfusion, can you use the mares blood

yes - only her RBC not plasma though

123

what is foal immunodeficiency syndrome (FIS)

dales/fell
anaemia, weakness from 3wo
immunoddef + 2ry illnesses, fatal

124

what are the common path of foal d+

- foal heat d+
- clostridia
- septicaemia (e coli, salmonella)
- campy
- rotavirus (older foals)

125

wy do foals get d+ at foal heat

pos changes in milk comp, mare hormones.. etc doesn't matter - self limiting

126

why is clostridial d+ so nasty

- severe p/acute often fatal
- necrotising (smells really bad)
- C. diff and perfringens most common = commensal!
- contagious+++
tx = pen

127

what are causes of d+ in the older foal

rotavirus
coronavirus, adenovirus (immunocompromised only)
crypto
giardia
rhodococcus equi (abscesses in lungs and GIT)

128

what is the causal organism of equine proliferative enteropathy

lawsonia intracellular - same as pigs