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Flashcards in Neonatology - calf dz Deck (147)
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1

what are the 3 main causes of METABOLIC acidosis

1. loss of bicarb
2. extra acid
3. bicarb gets diluted (bad IVFT)

2

what are the big changes that happen at birth which might predisp calf to RESP acidosis`

1. placetal to lung oxygenation
2. full inflation and surfactant distrubution
3. resp acidosis is required to stim the first breath (so dont panic)

3

what are the risks to the calf from dytocia

fundamentally - hypoxia due to:
1. compression of umbilicus
2. prem placental sep
3. oedema, bruising, fx
4. METAB acidosis from lactic acid production (fatigue)
5. RESP acidosis from inability to breath air

4

what is the likelihood of death after dytocia

4-6c more likely

5

how long after birth should a claf get to sternal recumbancy

wi 5mins

6

why wont csect delivered calves not breath instanty

no resp acidosis yet

7

what happens to the suck reflex in calves with metab acidosis

loses it

8

other than death whata re other conseq of dytocia

injury
failure to suck
FPT due to abs/colostrum

9

what does colostrum contain

E, protein, fats, vit
IgA, G, M
GF = IGF1, 2, insulin, prolactin, GH, steroids
inflm cells

10

what is epigenetic

ability to switch genes on / off with molecules

11

whyi s d+ common at 5do

the IgA has 'run out' from colostrum, so a point of low immunocompetance

12

how much can a calf stomach hold and how much should it get ASAP at birth

1L capacity (if same as a foal); 4L

13

what factors are related to quality of colostrum

- time after claving - sooner = more Ig
- diary - dilution effect, good qual, just need more/calf
- if skinny cow, give cake before calving
- systemic or local dz (mastitis etc)
- shorter dry period = better

14

what Ig are systemically action and which are locally 'teflon-effect' on the GI mucosa?

systemic = IgG, IgM
local = IgA and IgG1
all run out from d3+ and d+ risk from d5

15

how do you assess FPT

- serum Ig (refractometer, ZnS turb and NaS turbidity tests, radial immunodiffusion and nasal stick tests for IgG)

16

what shoud the result on the TP tests be

>55g/l. include both Ig and albumins..

17

what 2 pieces of equuip can assess colostrum qual

- brix refractometer
- colostrometer

18

desc the current best dairy calf management practice

- remove calf wi 2hrs
- 4L colostrum tubed wi 6 hrs
- another 3L wi 12hrs then 1L/d after
- keep colostrum in fridge

19

what are the conditions fror pasteurisation

60 minutes and 65 degrees

20

what are the 3 most common neonatal calf dz'es

1. d+
2. navel ill
3. septicaemia

21

what are the most impt dx indicators in the neonate

- demeanor, suck reflex
- TPR, hydration, abdo sounds and distention
- ZST and TP
- acid:base

22

what is the cause, signs and conseq of navel ill

- navel of oro-resp transm
- swollen navel w/wo other arteries, veins and urachus
- hernia often assoc
- peritonitis, septicaemia and polyarthritis (septic arthritis)

23

what are the RF for navel ill

- hygeine at calving (pathogen load) - sep calving pen
- patent navel/too short - str iodine
- FTP!

24

in ideal world - how do you dx navel ill

CE - swollen, hard, hernia ?. abdo palpation to see if umb vessels are abscessed
probe
ultrasound - peritonitis and any extension up vessels to liver

25

how do you tx navel ill

LA oxytet or TMS
drainage
excision of infected umb aa and urachus
**if the veins are infected, PTS as will track to liver!

26

what is another name for joint ill

septic arthritis

27

how do you tx joint ill

give long course of Abx, okay if catch early
joint lavage - hard, all pugged up with fibrin deposits
gentamycin beads wedged in the joint (4wks)

28

what is the definition of a bacteraemia or a septicaemia

bacteraemia = presence of bacteria in blood 2ry to mucosal damage
septicaemia = multiplication of bacteria in the blood w concurrent endotox (LPS), fatal

29

when are the common age windows that septicaemia is seen

>5do - FPT
5-14do - decline of IgM

30

what are a few sign sof septicaemia

collapsed, shock
congested conjunctiva w petechiae, DIC
CNS +-