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Flashcards in Neonatology - calf dz Deck (147):
1

what are the 3 main causes of METABOLIC acidosis

1. loss of bicarb
2. extra acid
3. bicarb gets diluted (bad IVFT)

2

what are the big changes that happen at birth which might predisp calf to RESP acidosis`

1. placetal to lung oxygenation
2. full inflation and surfactant distrubution
3. resp acidosis is required to stim the first breath (so dont panic)

3

what are the risks to the calf from dytocia

fundamentally - hypoxia due to:
1. compression of umbilicus
2. prem placental sep
3. oedema, bruising, fx
4. METAB acidosis from lactic acid production (fatigue)
5. RESP acidosis from inability to breath air

4

what is the likelihood of death after dytocia

4-6c more likely

5

how long after birth should a claf get to sternal recumbancy

wi 5mins

6

why wont csect delivered calves not breath instanty

no resp acidosis yet

7

what happens to the suck reflex in calves with metab acidosis

loses it

8

other than death whata re other conseq of dytocia

injury
failure to suck
FPT due to abs/colostrum

9

what does colostrum contain

E, protein, fats, vit
IgA, G, M
GF = IGF1, 2, insulin, prolactin, GH, steroids
inflm cells

10

what is epigenetic

ability to switch genes on / off with molecules

11

whyi s d+ common at 5do

the IgA has 'run out' from colostrum, so a point of low immunocompetance

12

how much can a calf stomach hold and how much should it get ASAP at birth

1L capacity (if same as a foal); 4L

13

what factors are related to quality of colostrum

- time after claving - sooner = more Ig
- diary - dilution effect, good qual, just need more/calf
- if skinny cow, give cake before calving
- systemic or local dz (mastitis etc)
- shorter dry period = better

14

what Ig are systemically action and which are locally 'teflon-effect' on the GI mucosa?

systemic = IgG, IgM
local = IgA and IgG1
all run out from d3+ and d+ risk from d5

15

how do you assess FPT

- serum Ig (refractometer, ZnS turb and NaS turbidity tests, radial immunodiffusion and nasal stick tests for IgG)

16

what shoud the result on the TP tests be

>55g/l. include both Ig and albumins..

17

what 2 pieces of equuip can assess colostrum qual

- brix refractometer
- colostrometer

18

desc the current best dairy calf management practice

- remove calf wi 2hrs
- 4L colostrum tubed wi 6 hrs
- another 3L wi 12hrs then 1L/d after
- keep colostrum in fridge

19

what are the conditions fror pasteurisation

60 minutes and 65 degrees

20

what are the 3 most common neonatal calf dz'es

1. d+
2. navel ill
3. septicaemia

21

what are the most impt dx indicators in the neonate

- demeanor, suck reflex
- TPR, hydration, abdo sounds and distention
- ZST and TP
- acid:base

22

what is the cause, signs and conseq of navel ill

- navel of oro-resp transm
- swollen navel w/wo other arteries, veins and urachus
- hernia often assoc
- peritonitis, septicaemia and polyarthritis (septic arthritis)

23

what are the RF for navel ill

- hygeine at calving (pathogen load) - sep calving pen
- patent navel/too short - str iodine
- FTP!

24

in ideal world - how do you dx navel ill

CE - swollen, hard, hernia ?. abdo palpation to see if umb vessels are abscessed
probe
ultrasound - peritonitis and any extension up vessels to liver

25

how do you tx navel ill

LA oxytet or TMS
drainage
excision of infected umb aa and urachus
**if the veins are infected, PTS as will track to liver!

26

what is another name for joint ill

septic arthritis

27

how do you tx joint ill

give long course of Abx, okay if catch early
joint lavage - hard, all pugged up with fibrin deposits
gentamycin beads wedged in the joint (4wks)

28

what is the definition of a bacteraemia or a septicaemia

bacteraemia = presence of bacteria in blood 2ry to mucosal damage
septicaemia = multiplication of bacteria in the blood w concurrent endotox (LPS), fatal

29

when are the common age windows that septicaemia is seen

>5do - FPT
5-14do - decline of IgM

30

what are a few sign sof septicaemia

collapsed, shock
congested conjunctiva w petechiae, DIC
CNS +-

31

what can CSF tell you about the state of septic shock

whether the BBB has been broken down. -- meningtis etc
if do a CSF tap and its frothy = protein

32

if you were to try and attempt septicaemia tx, what would you do?

- abx
- NSAID - flunixin
- c-steroids 1mg/kg - like a whole bottle, so massive dose
- supportive nursing

33

are the germs which cause septicaemia the same as those that cause d++

NO, except for salmonella

34

what causes calf diphtheria, what is it and the tx

f. necrophorum
oral lesions (sore, foul smelling, ulcerative lesions)
due to poor hygeine
tx w penicillin

35

what does L sides abdo swelling indicate

gas in rumen

36

what does R sided swelling indicate

volvulus, torsion, ex-lap needed

37

what is atresia coli

lack of connection from colon to anus

38

how do you relieve bloat

pass stomach tube - if relieves it was just rumen bloat
listen before and after to adbo sounds and pings
stab LHS
corect RF
froth bloat???

39

why do they get rumen bloat?

- milk going straight to rumen, oesoph groove not closing - ferments and metab acidosis, d+ and bloat
- poor rumen dev
- feed hygeine

40

what are the common causes of d+

rotavirus
coronavirus
crypto
ETEC
salmonella

41

where do calves get infected with d+ causing paths

- dams low dose seeding
- older calves are path multipliers (either healthy or w d++)
- environ (partic crypto)
- build up over calving block (at end calves 10x more likely to get infection)

42

in the calving area what density shoul dit be

9square metres / cow and calf

43

isolation of pathogen is not nec in tx and control of d+ (except crypto) but what other areas do you need to look at to investigate the d+ outbreak

- hygeine (path load)
- calf immunity (age, FPT..)
- predisposing factors (dystocia, colostrum status, stress, temperature, nutrition since)

44

with beef what impt factor must be done pre-calving with the dm

pre-calving feeding - inc to make sure colostrum good qual

45

what vaccination would you provide the dam which would protect calf against a d+ path

rotavirus, ETC, coronavirus vaccine 30d before calving. Protects calf via colostrum, must feed the calf for at least 4 d

46

to improve exposure of neonates to pathogens, sandhills calving system is good - how does it work

keep fields separated with cow and calves of 1wk difference in age, and move down so that the oldest calves are on the highest path field. then when youngest group are 4wo, mix them up if nec.

47

what are the recognisable signs of coccidiosis

>21do
poor food trough hygeine
dark scoure + blood
tenesmus
BAR normally tho

48

how do you tx coccidial scour

sulphonamides

49

how d you dx coccidial scour

faecal oocyst coutn

50

what is the cause and signs of necrotic enteritis

causes - unknown
2-6mo
usually fatal, but sporadic
pyrexic, pale mm, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia
looks like BVD
PM = necrotic lesions of GIT and resp

51

what is peri-wening scour syndrome

pasty scour
poor growth rate
u/k whether any germs involved!

52

what path ar responsible for hypersecretory scour

- ETEC

53

what path ar responsible for malabs d+?

rotavirus
coronavirus
crypto
6do ++

54

desc the basic pathophsy of d+

DH/hypovul = pre-renal failure and shock
metab acidosis = loss of bicarb, lactic acid build up in tissues and from colonic ferm
hyperkalaemia = 2ry to acidosis
hypoglycaemia = starvation

55

are most calves with d+ severely acidotic

yes, more so the older the calves are too

56

how do you tx d++

hypovol
metab acidosis and the hyperkalaemia
hypoglycaemia

57

who gets IVFT and wh doesnt/..

recumbant calves
severely acidortic, but NOT v DH
not improving despite ORS
v sev DH, even if standing

58

what IVFT do you chose in d+ calves

7-20L
vol expander = isotonic
if sev acidotic - give extra bicarb too
if ver 6do it will be SEVERELY acidotic

59

indicators of acid:base are impt to check vefore IVFT, what are you looking for to determine it acidoticity

sucken eyes - mean DH, if not but not standing = acidotic
6do + = acidotic

60

how much bicarb would you add to 5L of isotonic fluid

200mmol (dairy); 400mmol (beef)

61

normally isotonic fluids are used, so why choose hypertonic?

directly effect heart - ig hyperkalaemic resolves it
give with oral water too
stops vasocon - prev peripheral shutdown

62

what are the risks of IV FT

- to overshoot and become alkalotic
- thrombo-phlebitis from jugular
- hypocalcaemia
- eith CSF becomes acidotic, or alkaloidotic

63

there are 4 x generation of ORS name them

1. just to correct DH
2. with bicarv
3. with glucose too
4. glutamine which repare GIT villi

64

how should you give a calf ORS and how much

- teat and bucket
- 8L/d pref
- little and often
- milk as well!

65

why should you keep feeding the calf when giving ORS and it still has d+

- maintain BCS
- feed gut microbes
- ensure Ca, Mg, vit intake

--- d+ prob continue and then farmer compliance drops, also food getting fermented in colon may increase acidosis

66

what isthe target dairy calf weaning weight

65+kg

67

what is the target first service and first calving

13mth
24mth

68

what is the most common target number in dairy farming

400
- target heifer service at 400do at a weight of 400kg. and caling interval as adult is about 400d too

69

what is the target growth per day

about a 1kg on average

70

what might reduced calf growth rate

scour (5-21do)
pneumonia (6-12wo)
poor nutrition
crap environ (dz risk inc)

71

what is the correlation between av daily growth as a calf to milf yeild?

better daily growth, better yeild. so feed calves in first 5wks

72

what are the pros and cons of dairy calf housing

hutches - isolated, but dz controleld
individual pens - good dz control
group - better growth rates possible, but bettter management required

73

what is the lower critical temp of a calf

15 degrees, if dry not damp

74

what is the estimates temperature effect of adequate straw

+ 5 degrees

75

when do you aim to wean

when eating 1.5kg
8wo+
weighing 65kg+

76

will rapid growth cause a fatty udder?

NO, farmer myth

77

what does the umbilica a become

round lig of bladder

78

what does the umb v become

round lig in falciform lig

79

what does the urachus become

scar on bladder - hence if patent drips urine from umbilicus

80

what are the most impt bits of a calf clinical exam

suck reflex, joint ill, lungs, CNS

81

desc the different levels of hernia

simple - can push back
partially reducible - hernia + abscess
irreducible - abscess and complete hernia complicated by incarceration, strangulation and adhesions

82

what does pitting oedema suggest of the hernia

urolithiasis and urethral rupture

83

how do ID d/c/sinus tracts

blunt probe in
inj radio-opaque contrast medium
xray/u/sound

84

how do you take an u/sound pic of hernia

b-mode, 7.5-5 MHz linear head
id structures w pus and follow
ID any peritonitis or adhesions

85

what other investigations into the umbilical swelling could you do

paracentesis
pTP or ZnS04 turbidity to asses MDA levels
differential WBCC and fibrinogen to indicate duration of inflamation and be a px factor

86

what factors contribute to the presence of herniation

- genetics 0.4 heritability
- umb infection = 5x more likely to herniate
- poor colostrum/naval dipping

87

what size simple hernia can be left

if 1 finger diameter and fully reducible

88

how can hernias be fixed

surgery - suture together or apply polypropylene mesh (hygeine ++)

89

how longbox rest post hernia repair

1mth
no turnout for another 3mths
then mix into a younger group (so not bullied)

90

what sutures are suitable?

abs = vicryl
non-abs = prolene monofilament

91

desc the basic surgical technique

elliptical incision, cr to umbilicus
blunt dissect down the hernia to inguinal ring
draw ring edges together
suture skin over on another (vest over pants)/use a mesh

92

how do you treat an infection/abscess which has breached the body wall

arcanobacteria pyogenes and e coli
amoxicillin
open abscess and flush x 2/day

93

how do you tx a patent urachus

flush w abx (amox)
sx to remove urachus and any infected aa (pos all way to bladder)
postop care v impt++

94

desc process of urachal sx

1 stage = wo a hernia - v-midline incision to remove inf urachus
2 stage = tie off urachus from hernia and at the bladder

95

what are the conseq of inf umb v

tracts run to liver - pos need partial hepatectomy
marsupialise umb v out of body wall so it can drain
poor px

96

what are the complications with hernia repair

seroma
re-herniation
infection
aftercare not abided by..

97

how old is a bull when bc fertile

7mo

98

how big should a bulls balls be

28cm

99

what is castrated ram called

wether

100

when do rams bc fertileq

4-6mo (autumn..)

101

why do farmers castrate

safer, less agressive, inc fat, no taint, better colour meat.

102

why shouldn't farmers castrate rams/bulls

welfare - pain, stress, unnatural
reduced growth rates
leaner

103

how long does bull beef taken until slaughter

12-15mths

104

within how long is it legal to ring lambs/calves

1wo

105

if calves are over 3mths, and lambs 2mth who must castrate them

vet
Local an

106

when should lambs/calves be castrated

young = less stress, safer, less risk to animal and less growth setback
older = easier in suckler, inc danger and risk, longer high growth rate

107

what LA should be used and where applied

into sp. cord, sc of the scrotum
procaine 5% adrenaline
15 min onset and 1hr+ duration

108

should pain relief post castration be provided if over 2/3mo

yes- NSAIDs

109

whe would burdizzo clamps be preferential to sx

dirty conditions
no haem+ risk

110

how do you use a burdizzo

push cord laterall
clamp both sides seperatley
'knut-nut'
dont inc urethra

111

what are the pros/cons for open castration

pro - you def get 2 balls, less pain in bigger animals
cons - haem+ (pack with cotton), herniation (if already present- uhoh!!), infection (abx+NSAIDs), gut tie due to recoil of spermatic cord (exlap or cull)
**need tetanus

112

what are the methods of open castration

traction (

113

how to prevent complications of sx castration

avoid fly season
keep clean
restrain well for procedure
adeq analgesia
'u'-shaped incision allows drainage
LA OTC

114

what piece of equip will do the u shaped incision for you

newberry knife - dai loves em

115

why de-horn

safety, breed for polled, feed-barrier space

116

when to dehorn?

younger = better - smaller

117

where do you inj Local A and what nn are you aiming for for de-horning

cd to orbit bw the ear is a dip - inj
cervical n, cornual n of trigem

118

disbudding calves easy when small, as get old -what should you do as well

clip hair and clip tip off bud with foot trimmers too

119

why is wire a preferred method in older animals

will cauterise vessels as horn removed

120

what sedation should be used in large cattle

xylazine - 0.5ml i/m.
--- mix xylazine 6ml in 100ml of procaine and label it (cheats way) = 5-10ml each side

121

what aftercare/checks are impt after dehorning

NSAIDs
-meloxicam
haemorhage
infection - inc sinusitis

122

how do you tx sinusitis

hosepipe into hole, flush and tilt head to drain
abx --> penicillin/penstrep

123

what are the rules about disbudding horned goats?

need bigger - massive horn buds

124

what is the 1st stage of labour

dilation of cervix - 3-6hrs
towards end - contraction every 3min (stim fergusons reflex)

125

what is the 2nd stage of labour

expulsion of foetus (begins at sign of waterbag)

126

what is the 3rd stage of labour

expulsion of membranes (wi few hours)

127

when do you intervene

after 1hr fro bag showing
if 1st stage not got to 2nd wi 6hrs
extreme discomfort
+bleeding from vulva

128

name some causes of dystocia

mal pres
foeto-maternal disproportion
congen abn (schmallenburg..)

129

wrt to breech presentations, what is an impt factor to ID in examination

where the umbilicus is

130

where should calving chains be placed

above fetlock - less likely to slip, could fracture MT/MC
below fetlock = slip off
---do a double loop instead

131

is an episiotomy necessary

hopefully not - needs a lot of abx if does. epidural too. just manually dilate for 20mins instead!

132

what are the complications with a foetotomy

uterine, cervical and vaginal tears - from bony edges or the embryotome
metritis
adhesions

133

what are the RF for uterine torsion

POOR RUMEN FILL
hilly lamd
standing up and down
most are anticlockwise

134

uterine torsions mainly begin in stage 1 - how can you tell when its happened

cow stops straining (no ferguson reflex stim)
vaginal exam - corkscrewed/cant feel anything - per rectum maybe indicative

135

how can you correct uterine torsion

co-ordinate calf swing and ballottment
roll the cow

136

what indicates a csect

foeto-maternal disproportion
irreducible uterine torsion
insufficient cervical dilation

137

what is clenbuterol used for

to dilate the uterus - cow will not help with contractions after this

138

why should sedation not be used in csect

will cross the placenta and make the neonate less viable etc..

139

what additional considerations shoul be made to a cow under csect if she is standing or down

standing - pass a rope to ensure she doesnt fall on sx site

down - give v high cd analgesia and sedation

140

what is the basic csect tech

- left flank
- incise @ 1hand below transverse processes and 1 hand cd to last rib
- exteriorise uterus (red chance of peritonitis)
- find calfs foot and hock
- incise uterus from hock-toe
- help umbilicus out so doesnt break early
- check twins, remove membranes, close

141

what structures of the placenta must be avoided in csect

caruncles - bleed ++ so need ligating

142

what sutures are used for the uterus in csect

inverted (water tight), monofilament abs

143

what post-csect medication do you give

abx as you close the muscle layers
oxytocin - to help involute
calcium if nec
give calf colostrum+++

144

how do you get a massive emphasematous calf out?

paramedian incision
remove entire horn
give her a massive epidural

145

what are csect complications

haem + and peritonitis - pale and pyrexic at post-op check next day
ovarian and uterine adhesions - probs ID at next PD
retain f membr
metritis
woudn inf, seroma,..
reduced fertility in 20%~

146

what are the causes of uterine prolapse

hypoca
px = surv 2wks..

147

how do you replace a uterin prolapse

cd epidural
clean uterus (salt sol, do de-swell), apply lube and feed back in (may need a bottle at somepoint)
ensure tips of horns fully everted
oxytocin, NSAIDs, abx, ca++
pos place suture