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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (86)
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1

Failure to thrive + respiratory distress + machine-like murmur + palpable thrill over L infraclavicular border

Patent Ductus Arteriosus

2

Two main causes of cyanosis at birth

Transposition of the great arteries
Tetralogy of Fallot

3

Definition: Permissiveness

When one hormone allows another to exert its maximal effect.

4

First step in the pathogenesis of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis?

Endothelial cell injury

5

Main difference - Skeletal muscle vs Cardiac/Smooth muscle

Skeletal muscle does not require external calcium for contraction. Cardiac and Smooth muscle undergo calcium-induced calcium release.

6

Mid-systolic click in murmur?

Mitral valve prolapse

7

Holosystolic murmur? (2)

-Mitral/Tricuspid regurgitation
-Ventral Septal Defect

8

Bounding femoral and carotid pulses + head bobbing + murmur

Aortic regurgitation

9

Congenital cardiac defect(s) associated with diabetic mothers (1)

Transposition of great vessels

10

Congenital cardiac defect(s) associated with Marfan Syndrome (4)

-Mitral Valve Prolapse
-Thoracic aortic aneurysm
-Thoracic aortic dissection
-Aortic regurgitation

11

Congenital cardiac defect(s) associated with Turner Syndrome (2)

-Aortic coarctation
-Bicuspid aortic valve

12

Congenital cardiac defect(s) associated with DiGeorge Syndrome (3)

-Tetralogy of Fallot
-Interrupted aortic arch
-Truncus arteriosus

13

Congenital cardiac defect(s) associated with Freidrich ataxia (1)

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

14

Congenital cardiac defect(s) associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (4)

-Ventral Septal Defect
-Atrial Septal Defect
-Patent Ductus Arteriosus
-Tetralogy of Fallot

15

Cells involved in producing atheromas?

Endothelial cells
Leukocytes
Vascular smooth muscle cells

16

Types of vegetations found in subacute endocarditis?

Fibrin + platelets (thrombotic vegetations)

17

Flat facies, epicanthal folds, oblique palpebral fissures, single palmar crease, endocardial cushion defect =

Down syndrome (trisomy 21 via chromosomal nondisjunction)

18

Mechanism of diphtheria AB exotoxin

Active subunit A transfers a ribose from NAD onto histadine on Elongaton Factor 2. The ribosylation of EF-2 inhibits protein synthesis.

19

Myofibrillar dysarrray on light microscopy

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

20

Lipofuscin - definition, where it is found

Product of lipid peroxidation, yellow-brown pigment. Accumulates in aging cells (heart, liver).

21

What parameter is most similar between the systemic and pulmonary circuits?

Blood flow per minute

22

Fracture of the pterion results in laceration of _ and formation of _ hematoma?

-Middle meningial artery
-Epidural hematoma

23

Wide fixed splitting of S2 is caused by?

Atrial Septal Defect

24

The significant increase in blood oxygen saturation between two right sided vessels/chambers indicates =

L->R shunt (most likely a VSD)

25

Pericardial friction rub 3 days after an acute MI is caused by =

fibrinous pericarditis as a reaction to transmural necrosis

26

Pericardial friction rub several weeks after an acute MI is caused by =

fibrinous pericarditis caused by an autoimmune reaction against the pericardium

27

10 yo + clubbing + cyanosis in toes only + exertional dyspnea and fatigue + no regular checkups + equal extremity pulses + no murmur =

Large PDA

differential cyanosis

28

Where is O2 extraction the highest?

Myocardium

29

63 yo male + progressive exertional dyspnea + orthopnea + hypertension + elevated JVP + pitting edema

Is his Ang II level elevated or decreased?

Ang II will be elevated

CHF -> decreased CO -> decreased RBF -> (+) JG apparatus -> renin -> Ang II + Aldo + ADH -> aberrant salt and fluid retention and vasoconstriction -> elevated BP

30

Right sided varicocele indicates occlusion of _

IVC - usually due to a renal malignancy that has spread to the right renal vein and then thrombosed into the IVC