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Flashcards in Hematology/Hematopathology Deck (126)
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1

What (2) infections produce lymphocytic leukocytosis?

-Viral infections (CD8+ cells increase)
-Bordetella pertussis infection (bacteria produces lymphocytosis promoting factor which blocks lymphocytes from leaving the blood)

2

Mutations in the Myeloproliferative neoplasms (4)

CML = Philidelphia chromosome t(9;22) -> BCR-ABL fusion protein
PV = JAK2 mutation
ET = JAK2 mutation
Myelofibrosis = JAK2 mutation

all of these (+) tyrosine kinase -> proliferation of cell production

3

"starry sky" appearance

Burkitt Lymphoma

4

presentation: rapidly enlarging LN in an adult

Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

5

adult from Japan + IV drug user + rash + lytic bone lesions

Adult T Cell Lymphoma

6

Cerebriform nuclei

Mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome

7

Anisocytosis definition

variation in RBC size

8

Poikilocytosis definition

variation in RBC shape

9

What do the hepcidin levels indicate?

Hepcidin sequesters iron in its storage places and suppresses Epo production. Overall goal is to reduce iron in circulation.

Increased hepcidin = Decreased circulating iron (decreased TIBC, decreased serum iron)
Increased ferritin (because iron is stuck in storage)

10

Corrected reticulocyte count (%) equation

(% Retics observed x Hct)/ normal Hct

normal Hct = 45

11

Normal reticulocyte count =

1-2%

12

normal reticulocyte count response to anemia =

what does that indicate?

>3%

indicates good marrow response and thus peripheral destruction

13

When do you need to correct the reticulocyte count?

Anemia = decrease in total RBCs can falsely elevate reticulocyte count

14

What does anemia + corrected reticulocyte count of less than 3%

poor marrow response to anemia and thus this is an underproduction problem

15

Indirect BR = unconjugated or conjugated

Indirect BR = Unconjugated BR

16

Direct BR = unconjugated or conjugated

Direct BR = Conjugated BR

17

-Normocytic
-Shistocytes
-hemoglobinuria
-jaundice
-low serum haptoglobin
-corrected Retic count > 3%

Intravascular hemolysis -> normocytic anemia

18

-Normocytic
-Jaundice
-Spherocytes
-BR gallstones
-corrected Retic count > 3%

Extravascular hemolysi -> normocytic anemia

19

Cause of a corrected reticulocyte less than 3%

Aplastic anemia = failure of bone marrow therefore it cannot produce the needed cells (including reticulocytes)

20

Corticosteroids ->
-neutrophils?
-lymphocytes?
-eosinophils?

-neutrophilis: neutrophilia due to the decreased activation of neutrophil adhesion molecules therefore locking the neutrophils in the blood

-lymphocytes: lymphopenia due to increased apoptosis of lymphocytes

-eosinophils: eosinopenia due to sequestration of eosinophils in the lymph nodes

21

Intrinsic clotting cascade players =

What test measures activity?

XII
XI
IX
VIII

Measured by aPTT

22

Extrinsic clotting cascade players =

What test measures activity?

VII

Measured by PT

23

IgG to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex found in?

thrombosis or bleeding?

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

Promotes thrombosis in the setting of thrombocytopenia -> makes the thrombcytopenia worse!

24

adult female + numbness and tingling on left arm and face + hematuria + proteinuria + shistocytes on peripheral blood + thrombocytopenia + fever =

pathogenesis?

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)

Pathogenesis: Deficiency in vWF protease (ADAMTS13) -> large multimers of vWF accumulate and stimulate platelet aggregation

25

Deficiency of platelet glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) -> disorder of platelet function

What disease?
Normal function of GPIb

Bernard-Soulier Syndrome

GPIb adheres vWF to the exposed subendothelial collagen. If not present, platelets cannot adhere.

26

Deficiency of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) -> disorder of platelet function

What disease?
Normal function of GPIIb/IIIa

Glanzmann Thrombasthenia

GPIIb/IIIa normally aggregates the platelets to one another. If not present, platelets cannot aggregate.

27

Budd-Chiari syndrome =

What (2) neoplasms is it seen in?

Budd-Chiari Syndrome = splenic or hepatic vein thrombosis

Seen in:
-Polycythemia vera (PV)
-Essential thrombocythemia (ET)

Both types of myeloproliferative neoplasms that have a JAK2 gene mutation

28

-Lymphoblast cells >20% of bone marrow
-age less than 15 years old

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
- B cell type in young kids
- T cell type in older kids/adolescents and more of a mass (lymphoma)

29

t(8;14)

what genes are involved?

Burkitt lymphoma

c-myc (chr 8) and heavy chain Ig (chr 14)

30

t(14;18)

what genes are involved?

Follicular lymphoma

heavy chain Ig (chr 14) and BCL-2 (chr 18)