Structural pathology of Wernike Encephalopathy?
Mamillary body necrosis
Temporal lobe encephalitis is caused by what kind of infection?
Herpes virus infection
Rapidly progressive dementia + myoclonic jerks =
4 tumors that form psamomma bodies
-Meningioma -Papillary thyroid carcinoma -Mesothelioma -Papillary serous carcinoma of the ovary or endothelium
Slow growing + Well circumscribed + Intracranial mass + Whorled pattern of cellular growth + Psamomma bodies =
S-100 positive tumors (2) What does it indicate?
-Schwannoma -Melanoma Indicates that it is of neural crest cell origin
Elongated cells + Regular oval nuclei + Biphasic growth pattern + S-100 positive =
Relapsing and remitting ocular problems and tingling + worse after heat =
-Ocular problems = optic neuritis, internuclear opthalmoplegia
Complication of a subarachnoid hemorrhage =
How does it present =
Presents as new onset confusion or focal neurological deficit. Not seen on CT.
Drug to prevent subarachnoid hemorrhage complication and its mechanism.
Nimodipine - selective Ca channel blocker
Cystic cavities in the brain are lined by =
Diagnosis of tetanus is made via
History and Physical only
Ascending (flaccid) paralysis after a febrile illness is what disease?
Guillain-Barre disease microscopic pathology
Endoneurial inflammatory infiltrate of macrocytes and lymphocytes
Hemangioma in the retina and/or cerebellum + Congenital cysts/neoplasms in the kidney, liver or pancreas =
Von Hippel Lindau
Cystic tumor in the cerebellum of a child =
Which kind of aneurysm rupture results in -> deep intraparenchymal hemorrhage + focal/acute neurological deficits + hypertension?
Rupture of _ results in a subdural (crescent shaped) hematoma + gradual onset of symptoms
cortical bridging veins
Wernike Syndrome triad = Reversible with _ treatment
Ocular dysfunction Ataxia Confusion Reversible with Thiamine treatment
Korsakoff Syndrome symptoms (2) =
Permanent memory loss
Young child + Precocious puberty + Perinaud syndrome + Obstructive hydrocephalus =
Perinaud Syndrome definition
paralysis of upward gaze
Transtentorial (uncal) herniation symptoms (3)
-Ipsilateral CN III damage => oculomotor nerve palsy + fixed/dilated pupil
-Contralateral LCST damage/Ispislateral cerebral peduncle damage
-Ipsilateral PCA damage => occipital cortex damage
What is the term for: monocular vision loss + pain on eye movement + afferent pupillary defect?
First area damaged by global cerebral ischemia
Pyramidal cells of the hippocampus
Cerebellar ataxia + Loss of position/vibration + Kyphoscoliosis + Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy =
Definition - xanthochromia
blood in the CSF
Definition - lissencephaly
Congenial absence of gyri on the brain. Clinically associated with severe mental retardation.
Definition - Hydrocephalus ex vacuo
Ventricular enlargement due to brain atrophy. Not accompanied by an increase in CSF pressure.
Etiology of Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration?