Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (79)
What disease has these symptoms - progressive dyspnea + fine crackles + clubbing + diffuse reticular opacities?
Interstitial lung disease (Restrictive)
What disease has these spirometry findings
-very decreased FVC
-increased FEV1/FVC ratio
Interstitial lung disease (Restrictive)
Where is RNA Polymerase I functional? and what does it do?
RNA Polymerase I is functional in the nucleolus.
It produces rRNA and promotes ribosomal maturation and assembly.
What is the main stimulator of respiratory rate in healthy individuals? And which chemoreceptors are stimulated?
increase in PaCO2 -> decrease in pH (increase in H+ ions) -> (+) central chemoreceptors
What is the main stimulator of respiratory rate in patients with COPD? And which chemoreceptors are stimulated?
What happens if you give these patients 100% Oxygen?
decrease in PaO2 -> (+) peripheral chemoreceptors
if you give these patients 100% oxygen therapy -> their PaO2 rises -> stops stimulating peripheral chemoreceptors -> drive to breathe stops
What disease has the following symptoms - daytime somnolence + non-restorative sleep + morning headaches + affective/cognitive symptoms (ex: depression)?
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
What proteins do eosinophils release? What are its two functions/consequences?
Eosinophils release major basic protein.
-damages bronchial epithelium
What is the CFTR Cl channels' function in normal respiratory mucosa?
-Increases efflux of Cl into the lumen
-Inhibits ENaC function to decrease Na (and H2O) reabsorption from the lumen
-Overall, puts/keeps Cl, Na, H2O in the lumen
What is the CFTR Cl channels' function in normal sweat glands?
-Increases Cl absorption from the lumen
-Stimulate ENaC function to increase Na (and H2O) absorption from the lumen
-Overall, brings Cl, Na, H2O out of lumen (keeps them out of sweat)
Sharp localized severe pain exacerbated by breathing, coughing, or changing positions =
Pleuritic chest pain
Nerves involved in pleuritic chest pain and the parts of the pleura they innervate (2)
-Phrenic nerve - diaphragmatic and mediastinal pleura
-Intercostal nerve - all other parts of the pleura
Definition of polycythemia/erythrocytosis
Definition = increased amount of hematocrit
How to diagnose Legionella?
Urine antigen test
Which bug - high fever + cough + confusion + diarrhea + on a cruise/immunocompromised + hyponatremia + patchy infiltrates in lung + sputum shows neutrophilia but no bacteria?
What is the piriform recess?
Which nerve runs through it?
What reflex is impaired if that nerve is severed?
Piriform recess = fossas on either side of the larynx that are bounded medially by the aryepiglottic folds
Superior laryngeal nerve runs through it (branch of CN X)
Often, a fish/chicken bone (small) gets stuck here and the nerve can be severed. This results in a loss of the afferent limb of the cough reflex.
Cheyne-Stokes Breathing is seen in what disease?
Advanced congestive heart failure
Kussmaul breathing is seen in what condition?
What are all the causes of Kussmaul breathing?
K = diabetic ketoacidosis
U = uremia
S = sepsis
S = salicylates
M = methanol
A = aldehydes
L = lactic acidosis
Dyspnea + Bibasilar crackles + S3 + recent MI =
Left heart failure
What is the pathogenesis of dyspnea in left heart failure?
LHF -> increased EDP -> decreased VR from pulmonary circulation -> increased hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary circulation -> fluid moves compartments into the pulmonary interstitum -> decreased compliance of lungs -> dyspnea
Which bacteria is associated with "currant jelly sputum"?
Klebsiella preferentially attacks which populations? (3)
What effect does ether have on enveloped vs non-enveloped viruses?
Ether disrupts the viral envelope therefore inactivating enveloped viruses.
Non-enveloped viruses are resistant to ether.
Which leukotrienes play a role in asthma? (3)
Which cells have secretory activity in the terminal bronchioles?
Clara/Club cells - secrete a surfactanty-mucusy substance
No mucous cells here
Peptrostreptococcus, Fusobacterium, Bacterioides are _ bacteria that are normally found _ but are also found in what lung lesion?
-Normally found in the oropharynx
-Can also be found in lung abscesses
Oral thrush + Interstitial pneumonia + Lymphopenia + Within the first year of life =
Vertical transmission of HIV-1
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) recommended for pregnant females infected with HIV?
2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors + 1 (protease inhibitor OR non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor OR integrase inhibitor)
Same ART as is for all HIV-infected adults. It is just very important for pregnancy because it drastically lowers the rate of vertical transmission.
Panic attacks cause what changes in PaCO2, pH and cerebral blood flow?
-decreased cerebral blood flow caused by vasoconstriction