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Flashcards in GI Deck (146)
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1

Intestinal atresia of the jejunum + wrapping of the ileum around vasculature is caused by =

Vascular occlusion in utero

2

What is the name of the main SMA and IMA anastamoses?

Marginal artery of Drummond

3

What is the term for when a pair of alleles from 2 loci are inherited together in the same gamete (haplotype) more or less often than would be expected by random chance alone?

How do you calculate the chance inheritance?

Linkage equilibrium

Chance inheritance is calculated by multiplying freq of A x freq of B

Note: This can also occur if the 2 loci are on different chromosomes

4

Required supplementation for exclusively breastfed infants? (3)

-Vitamin D: required due to the lack of sun exposure and to prevent rickets. Given at 1 month visit.

-Vitamin K: required due to the lack of gut bacterial colonization that normally produce K. Prevents hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (K required for clotting factors). Given intramuscularly at birth.

-Iron: only required if preterm or low birth weight.

5

Muscle in charge of esophagus peristalsis

Cricopharyngeus muscle

6

Most prominent lab finding in acute hepatic failure =

Prolonged PT

due to FVII having the shortest half life of all the proteins made in the liver

7

Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels are used to monitor _ injury

biliary injury

8

Fine, granular, dull, eosinophilic, ground-glass hepatocytes =

Hepatitis B infection - hepatocellular cytoplasm fills with hep B surface antigen

9

Golden-yellow hemosiderin granules in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes =

Hemochromatosis - iron overload

10

Lymphoid aggregates in the portal tract + focal areas of macrovesicular steatosis =

Hepatitis C infection

11

Pain moving to McBurnie's point is caused by =

Irritation of the parietal peritoneum due to appendicitis

somatic, more localized, sharp pain

12

5 year old boy + abdominal pain + blind pouch connected to the ileum + fibrous bands attaching the pouch to the umbilicus =

Meckel's diverticulum

True diverticulum that contains all the layers

13

Mechanism of H. Pylori duodenal ulceration

H pylori -> inhibits D cells in the stomach antrum -> decreases somatostatin release

No somatostatin -> increased gastrin release from G cells -> increased Histamine secretion and increased direct H secretion

Increased amount of acid released into the stomach -> increased amount of acid enters the duodenum -> normal neutralizing effects are overwhelmed -> ulceration

14

High pitched, tinkling bowel sounds indicate =

small bowel obstruction

15

pathogenesis of a Mallory-Weiss tear =

rapid increase in intra-abdominal and intra-luminal gastric pressure

16

Retroperitoneal Organs (9)

SAD PUCKER

Suprarenal (adrenal) glands
Aorta + IVC
Duodenum - except for first part
Pancreas - except tail
Ureters
Colon - ascending and descending
Kidneys
Esophagus - thoracic portion
Rectum - partially

17

WDHA Syndrome

Watery Diarrhea, Hypokalemia, Achlorhydria

Caused by VIPoma (non-alpha, non-beta pancreatic islet cell tumor)

VIP -> increased intestinal water and electrolyte secretion + increased relaxation of intestinal smooth muscle and sphincters

18

Echogenic = radiolucent or radiopaque

Echogenic = Radiolucent

19

night blindness is caused by

Vitamin A deficiency

20

What type of hernia might be found in the scrotum?

Indirect hernia - abdominal contents protrude through the deep inguinal ring all the way through the superficial inguinal ring and into the scrotal sac

21

Anti-inflammatory cytokines (2) =

IL-10, TGF-beta

22

99m Tc-Pertechnetate scan is used to diagnose =

Meckle's diverticulum - the radioisotope used has an affinity for parietal cells (physiologic AND ectopic)

23

Neutrophil attractants (4)

-IL-8
-LTB4
-C5a
-N-formylated peptides/bacterial products

24

Where is rRNA made?

nucleolus

25

2 organisms found most commonly in an intra-abdominal infection/abscess

-B. fragilis
-E. coli

26

Progressive obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts leading to jaundice within the first 2 months of life =

biliary atresia

27

Main immune system defense against mycobacterial infections =

interferon-gamma

28

What inherited defect can result in disseminated TB early in infancy?

inherited defect in interferon-gamma signaling

29

Things above the pectinate line in the rectum travel to which LNs? (1)

-internal iliac LN

30

Things below the pectinate line in the rectum travel to which LNs? (1)

-superficial inguinal LN