Flashcards in GI Deck (146)
Intestinal atresia of the jejunum + wrapping of the ileum around vasculature is caused by =
Vascular occlusion in utero
What is the name of the main SMA and IMA anastamoses?
Marginal artery of Drummond
What is the term for when a pair of alleles from 2 loci are inherited together in the same gamete (haplotype) more or less often than would be expected by random chance alone?
How do you calculate the chance inheritance?
Chance inheritance is calculated by multiplying freq of A x freq of B
Note: This can also occur if the 2 loci are on different chromosomes
Required supplementation for exclusively breastfed infants? (3)
-Vitamin D: required due to the lack of sun exposure and to prevent rickets. Given at 1 month visit.
-Vitamin K: required due to the lack of gut bacterial colonization that normally produce K. Prevents hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (K required for clotting factors). Given intramuscularly at birth.
-Iron: only required if preterm or low birth weight.
Muscle in charge of esophagus peristalsis
Most prominent lab finding in acute hepatic failure =
due to FVII having the shortest half life of all the proteins made in the liver
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels are used to monitor _ injury
Fine, granular, dull, eosinophilic, ground-glass hepatocytes =
Hepatitis B infection - hepatocellular cytoplasm fills with hep B surface antigen
Golden-yellow hemosiderin granules in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes =
Hemochromatosis - iron overload
Lymphoid aggregates in the portal tract + focal areas of macrovesicular steatosis =
Hepatitis C infection
Pain moving to McBurnie's point is caused by =
Irritation of the parietal peritoneum due to appendicitis
somatic, more localized, sharp pain
5 year old boy + abdominal pain + blind pouch connected to the ileum + fibrous bands attaching the pouch to the umbilicus =
True diverticulum that contains all the layers
Mechanism of H. Pylori duodenal ulceration
H pylori -> inhibits D cells in the stomach antrum -> decreases somatostatin release
No somatostatin -> increased gastrin release from G cells -> increased Histamine secretion and increased direct H secretion
Increased amount of acid released into the stomach -> increased amount of acid enters the duodenum -> normal neutralizing effects are overwhelmed -> ulceration
High pitched, tinkling bowel sounds indicate =
small bowel obstruction
pathogenesis of a Mallory-Weiss tear =
rapid increase in intra-abdominal and intra-luminal gastric pressure
Retroperitoneal Organs (9)
Suprarenal (adrenal) glands
Aorta + IVC
Duodenum - except for first part
Pancreas - except tail
Colon - ascending and descending
Esophagus - thoracic portion
Rectum - partially
Watery Diarrhea, Hypokalemia, Achlorhydria
Caused by VIPoma (non-alpha, non-beta pancreatic islet cell tumor)
VIP -> increased intestinal water and electrolyte secretion + increased relaxation of intestinal smooth muscle and sphincters
Echogenic = radiolucent or radiopaque
Echogenic = Radiolucent
night blindness is caused by
Vitamin A deficiency
What type of hernia might be found in the scrotum?
Indirect hernia - abdominal contents protrude through the deep inguinal ring all the way through the superficial inguinal ring and into the scrotal sac
Anti-inflammatory cytokines (2) =
99m Tc-Pertechnetate scan is used to diagnose =
Meckle's diverticulum - the radioisotope used has an affinity for parietal cells (physiologic AND ectopic)
Neutrophil attractants (4)
-N-formylated peptides/bacterial products
Where is rRNA made?
2 organisms found most commonly in an intra-abdominal infection/abscess
Progressive obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts leading to jaundice within the first 2 months of life =
Main immune system defense against mycobacterial infections =
What inherited defect can result in disseminated TB early in infancy?
inherited defect in interferon-gamma signaling
Things above the pectinate line in the rectum travel to which LNs? (1)
-internal iliac LN