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Flashcards in General Deck (253)
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1

Why does carcinoid syndrome only occur after the carcinoid tumor has metastasized?

When localized to the GI system, the vasoactive substances released from the tumor are metabolized by the liver via the first pass effect.
When metastasized to the liver, the vasoactive substances produced enter directly into the systemic circulation resulting in the various symptoms.

2

Which hepatitis is able to integrate into the host genome and why?

Hepatitis B:
-DNA virus
-contains a reverse transcritpase
-integrates itself into the host genome and can remain latent in cells

3

How does therapeutic ionizing radiation work? (2 methods)

-Double stranded DNA breaks
-Free radical formation (ROS) that cause damage to cells and DNA

4

What does the HIV Env gene encode =

gp160 -> gp120 + gp41
mutations indicate that the HIV virus is resistant to certain anti-retroviral drugs

5

What does the HIV Pol gene encode =

reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease

mutations indicate that the HIV virus has developed resistance to anti-retroviral drugs (NNRTI, NRTI, protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors)

6

What LN?
-skin from the umbilicus downwards,
-distal anus (below the pectinate line)
-distal vagina
-vulva
-scrotum

superficial inguinal nodes

7

Mechanism of warfarin induced skin necrosis?

Decreased production of protein C -> prothrombotic state -> increased thromboses in skin vessels -> ischemia -> necrosis

8

adult + pseudopallisading necrosis in the brain + intracranial mass =

Glioblastoma multiforme

Most common primary brain neoplasm in adults.

9

most commonly injured organ in "blunt abdominal trauma"

spleen rupture

10

proliferation fraction (Ki-67) indicates

mitotic index

11

What type of liver injury occurs with carbon tetrachloride exposure?

lipid peroxidation -> fatty change with hepatic necrosis

12

What does heterochromatin consist of? And what does it's presence indicate about that piece of DNA?

-methylated DNA
-deacylated histones

if DNA is in this structure, it indicates there is a low transcription level.

13

Hypertrophy

increase in size

14

Hyperplasia

increase in number

15

Cyanosis + Chocolate colored blood + Decreased SaO2 + Normal PaO2

Methemoglobinemia (Fe2+ is oxidized to Fe3+ which cannot bind oxygen)

16

Hallmark of reversible cell injury

cellular swelling

17

Hallmark of irreversible cell injury

membrane damage

18

AL amyloid (Ig Light chain) =

primary systemic amyloidosis

19

AA amyloid (serum amyloid associated protein)

secondary systemic amyloidosis

20

non-mutated transthyretin =

senile cardiac amyloidosis

21

mutated transthyretin =

familiar amyloid cardiomyopathy -> restrictive cardiomyopathy

22

"tumor cells in an amyloid background" =

medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

23

beta-2 microglobulin deposition in joints =

dialysis-associated amyloidosis

24

Pain mediators = (2)

-Bradykinin
-PGE2

25

Neutrophil rolling is mediated via =

on endothelial cells =
-P selectin - from Weinel-Palade bodies mediated by histamine
-E selectin - induced by TNF and IL-1

on leukocytes =
-sialyl Lewis X

26

Neutrophil adhesion is mediated via =

on endothelial cells =
-ICAM and VCAM - induced by TNF and IL-1

on leukocytes =
-integrins - induced by C5a, LTB4

27

SCCID=

Selectins and Carbohydrates
Chemokines
Integrins
Diapodesis

28

1 gram of protein = ? Calories

4 Calories

29

Where on tRNA does the AA attach?

The 3' end on the CCA tail

30

(CGG)n =

Fragile X Syndrome