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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal + Skin Deck (102)
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1

Osteomyelitis in kids usually seeds where?

Metaphysis of long bones

2

Dystonia - definition and cause

Prolonged repetitive muscle contractions.
Occurs as a result of impaired basal ganglia function.

3

Safest location for a intragluteal injection?

Superolateral region - avoids the sciatic nerve and the superior gluteal nerve

4

Complications of ankylosing spondylitis (3)

-Limited chest expansion
-Ascending aortitis
-Uveitis

5

Compliment deficiency in SLE

Decrease in C3, C4, CH50

6

Mechanism of C. perfringens necrosis

Lecithiniase/alpha-toxin/Phospholipase C

splits phospholipid molecules resulting in membrane destruction, cell death, hemolysis and necrosis

7

HLA-B27 is what class of HLA (I vs II)?

Class I serotype - present on all nucleated cells

8

DDx: back pain + elevated alkaline phosphatase = (2)

-Osteoblast metastasis
-Paget's disease of bone

9

anti-histidyl-tRNA transferase autoantibody =

Anti-Jo-1 antibody

polymyositis/dermatomyositis

10

bony deformities + hyperthyroidism + unilateral, large, irregular pigmented macules =

McClune Albright Syndrome

11

Definition - heteroplasmy

Coexistence of both mutated and wild type versions of mitochondrial genomes in one cell

12

Lactic acidosis + Histological ragged red fibers =

Mitochondrial myopathy

13

Bugs that cause necrotizing fascitis (3)

-Strep pyogenes (Group A Strep)
-Staph aureus
-Clostridium perfringens

14

What is a "contracture" of a wound?

excessive metalloprotease (MMP) activity that results in excessive wound contraction

15

Muscle involved in the valsalva maneuver that develops the elevated intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressure =

Rectus muscle

16

Differences in stature in achondroplasia vs GH/IGF-1 deficiency

Achondroplasia = short, thick appendicular skeleton with a normal axial skeleton - disproportional short stature

GH/IGF-1 deficiency = proportional short stature

17

Tendons that line the anatomical snuff box (3)

-Tendon of the extensor pollicis longus - medial border
-Tendon of the abductor pollicis longus - lateral border
-Tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis - lateral border

18

What kind of damage does UV light do to DNA?

pyrimidine dimers

19

What childhood exanthem has a maculopapular rash that begins on the face and quickly spreads down to extremities and trunk with co-presenting post-auricular and occipital lymphadenopathy

Rubella (part of the Togavirus family)

20

Intellectual disability + Gait/Posture disturbances + Eczema + Musty body odor =

Phenylketonuria (autosomal recessive)

21

What hormone is responsible for male pattern baldness?

DHT

"androgenic allopecia"

22

What causes the skin retraction seen in invasive breast cancer?

Infiltration of the suspensory Cooper ligament

23

What causes the peau d'orange appearance in invasive breast cancer?

Blockage of lymphatic drainage

24

Chronic glucocorticoid use to treat atopic dermatitis results in what (negative) side effect?

atrophy of the dermis caused by decreased ECM collagen and GAG production

25

First line treatment for someone having a gouty arthritis attack?

NSAIDs

26

Artery damaged during displacement of the femoral neck?

medial circumflex artery

27

How do you measure potency of an inhaled anesthetic?

MAC = minimal alveolar concentration

Inversely proportional to potency:
-low MAC
-increased potency

28

elderly patient + pulmonary TB + isoniazid treatment = peripheral neuropathy

Why?

Vitamin B6 deficiency caused by isoniazid use.
Requires pyridoxine supplementation.

29

Older patient + new back pain + recent/treated Staph bacteremia infection + fever + fatigue + malaise =

How to dx?

Vertebral osteomyelitis - probably from the Staph infection

to dx = MRI of the spine

30

Child with sickle cell disease + fever + pain in foot + leukocytosis =

Osteomyelitis (Salmonella typhi)

Avascular necrosis would present as bone pain only