Flashcards in Musculoskeletal + Skin Deck (102)
Osteomyelitis in kids usually seeds where?
Metaphysis of long bones
Dystonia - definition and cause
Prolonged repetitive muscle contractions.
Occurs as a result of impaired basal ganglia function.
Safest location for a intragluteal injection?
Superolateral region - avoids the sciatic nerve and the superior gluteal nerve
Complications of ankylosing spondylitis (3)
-Limited chest expansion
Compliment deficiency in SLE
Decrease in C3, C4, CH50
Mechanism of C. perfringens necrosis
splits phospholipid molecules resulting in membrane destruction, cell death, hemolysis and necrosis
HLA-B27 is what class of HLA (I vs II)?
Class I serotype - present on all nucleated cells
DDx: back pain + elevated alkaline phosphatase = (2)
-Paget's disease of bone
anti-histidyl-tRNA transferase autoantibody =
bony deformities + hyperthyroidism + unilateral, large, irregular pigmented macules =
McClune Albright Syndrome
Definition - heteroplasmy
Coexistence of both mutated and wild type versions of mitochondrial genomes in one cell
Lactic acidosis + Histological ragged red fibers =
Bugs that cause necrotizing fascitis (3)
-Strep pyogenes (Group A Strep)
What is a "contracture" of a wound?
excessive metalloprotease (MMP) activity that results in excessive wound contraction
Muscle involved in the valsalva maneuver that develops the elevated intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressure =
Differences in stature in achondroplasia vs GH/IGF-1 deficiency
Achondroplasia = short, thick appendicular skeleton with a normal axial skeleton - disproportional short stature
GH/IGF-1 deficiency = proportional short stature
Tendons that line the anatomical snuff box (3)
-Tendon of the extensor pollicis longus - medial border
-Tendon of the abductor pollicis longus - lateral border
-Tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis - lateral border
What kind of damage does UV light do to DNA?
What childhood exanthem has a maculopapular rash that begins on the face and quickly spreads down to extremities and trunk with co-presenting post-auricular and occipital lymphadenopathy
Rubella (part of the Togavirus family)
Intellectual disability + Gait/Posture disturbances + Eczema + Musty body odor =
Phenylketonuria (autosomal recessive)
What hormone is responsible for male pattern baldness?
What causes the skin retraction seen in invasive breast cancer?
Infiltration of the suspensory Cooper ligament
What causes the peau d'orange appearance in invasive breast cancer?
Blockage of lymphatic drainage
Chronic glucocorticoid use to treat atopic dermatitis results in what (negative) side effect?
atrophy of the dermis caused by decreased ECM collagen and GAG production
First line treatment for someone having a gouty arthritis attack?
Artery damaged during displacement of the femoral neck?
medial circumflex artery
How do you measure potency of an inhaled anesthetic?
MAC = minimal alveolar concentration
Inversely proportional to potency:
elderly patient + pulmonary TB + isoniazid treatment = peripheral neuropathy
Vitamin B6 deficiency caused by isoniazid use.
Requires pyridoxine supplementation.
Older patient + new back pain + recent/treated Staph bacteremia infection + fever + fatigue + malaise =
How to dx?
Vertebral osteomyelitis - probably from the Staph infection
to dx = MRI of the spine