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Flashcards in Embryology Deck (46)
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1

Urogenital structures arising from intermediate mesoderm (5)

-Kidney (pronephros, mesonephros, metanephric ducts/tubules)
-Ureter
-Adrenal cortex
-Gonads
-Reproductive ducts (Mesonephric/Wolffian + Paramesonephric/Mullerian)

2

Primoridal germ cells begin their migration from _ and end up in _

-Yolk sac
-Genital ridges (developing gonads)

3

What initiates primordial germ cell migration?

The presence of two sex chromosomes

4

Wolffian ducts develop into? (4)

SEED
Seminal vesicles, Epididymis, Ejaculatory duct, Ductus deferens

5

Mullerian ducts develop into? (4)

Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix, Upper vagina

6

Genital tubercle develops into (male and female)

Male = Glans of penis
Female = Glans of clitoris

7

Urethral folds develop into (male and female)

Male = corpora cavernosum, corpus spongiosum, shaft of penis
Female = bulb of vesibule, labia minora

8

Genital swelling develops into (male and female)

Male = scrotum
Female = labia majora

9

Anti-Mullerian Hormone is part of what family?

TGF-beta superfamily of peptide growth factors

10

5-alpha reductase type 1 locations

Liver and Skin

11

5-alpha reductase type 1 functions

male body hair patterns

12

5-alpha reductase type 2 locations

skin of the genitals and skin on the scalp

13

5-alpha reductase type 2 functions

-masculinization of the external genitalia in utero
-male pattern baldness

14

Kleinfelter Syndrome genotype

XXY

15

male + hypogonadism + gynecomastia + above average height + infertile =

Kleinfelter Syndrome

16

Turner Syndrome genotype

XO

17

female + short stature + streak gonad/infertile + no puberty =

Turner Syndrome

18

Kleinfelter levels of LH and FSH (elevated or decreased)

Elevated LH, Elevated FSH due to lack of T feedback (low T due to hypogonadism)

19

SF1 function?

-Transcription factor for DAX1
-Stimulate AMH/MIS production in Sertoli cells
-Stimulate T production within Leydig cells

20

One copy of DAX1 function?

-Testes differentiation

21

SRY function?

Sertoli cell and Leydig cell differentiation

22

Arteries of the developing gut (3)

Foregut - Celiac trunk
Midgut - Superior mesenteric artery
Hindgut - Inferior mesenteric artery

23

Developing heart: Bulbus cordis ->

Smooth RV + LV

24

Developing heart: Truncus arteriosus ->

ascending aorta + pulmonary trunk

25

Developing heart: Primitive Ventricles ->

Trabeculated RV + LV

26

Developing heart: Primitive Atria ->

R + L auricles

27

Developing heart: Sinus venosus ->

Coronary sinus + RA

28

Developing heart: Ductus arteriosus ->

Ligamentum arteriosum

29

Function of ductus arteriosus?

Connects the fetal pulmonary artery and fetal aorta

30

Function of the foramen ovale?

Connects the RA to the LA (R->L shunt)