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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (219)
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1

Gentamycin
Neomycin
Amikacin
Tobramycin
Streptomycinn
Paromycin

Aminoglycosides

Bactericidal, inhibit 30S, only works in aerobes

2

What effect does Omeprazole have on various drugs?

Omeprazole is a PPI which lowers the acidity of the stomach (increases pH)

This can affect the absorption of some drugs.

3

-Diphenhydramine
-Dimenhydrinate
-Chlorpheniramine

First generation H1 blockers (antihistamines)

anti-allergy, induce drowsiness, anti-motion sickness

4

-Loratadine
-Fexofenadine
-Desloratadine
-Cetirizine

Second generation H1 blockers (antihistamines)

do not cross BBB

anti-allergy only

5

Cyclophosphamide mechansim of action

cross-links DNA at guanine N-7 -> inhibiting DNA replication

6

-Sertraline
-Paroxetine
-Fluoxetine
-Citalopram

SSRI - blocks re-uptake of serotonin only

7

-Venlafaxine
-Duloxetine

SNRI - blocks re-uptake of serotonin and NE

8

Urinary urgency means =

What do you give to treat?

Urinary urgency means the bladder is over-contracting.

Give them a muscarinic receptor antagonist to relax the detrusor contraction.
ex)atropine, oxybutamine, tolterodine, solifenacin

9

Excess urination - elevated Ach or decreased Ach

elevated Ach

Parasympathetics make you Pee

10

Cilostazol =

phosphodiesteraes inhibitor - inhibits platelet aggregation + direct vasodilation

11

Reye syndrome of the liver on light microscopy =

microvesicular steatosis + reduced number of mitochondria + decreased amount of glycogen

12

acetaminophen toxicity on LM

centrilobular hepatic necrosis

13

Treatment for TCA overdose =

Sodium bicarbonate

Treats the cardiac toxicity by increasing pH and increasing intracellular Na therefore alleviating the VG Na blockade
(fixes the widening of the QRS)

14

D-penacillamine is a treatment for?

Copper overload

used for chelation

15

Deferoxamine is a treatment for?

Iron overload

used for chelation

16

EDTA and Dimercaprol are treatments for?

Lead overload

17

3 drugs for Absence seizures =

-Ethosuximide = inhibits thalamic T type Ca channels
-Valproate = increased Na channel inactivation + inhibits GABA transaminase
-Lamotrigine = inhibits VG Na channels

18

Status Epilepticus treatments (first, second)

First: IV lorazepam = increased frequency of GABA-A channel opening - increases inward Cl current

Second: Phenytoin = increased Na channel inactivation - decreased Na current

19

How do opioids hyperpolarize neurons?

Increased K out, Decreased Ca in

20

Is glutamate excitatory or inhibitory?

excitatory!

21

Succimer is used for?

Lead chelation for children with lead toxicity

22

Clopidogrel, Parasugrel, Ticagrelor, Ticlopidine

ADP receptor inhibitors (P2-Y12 R)

Irreversible inhibition of platelet degranulation

23

Abciximab
Eptifibatide
Tirofiban

GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors -> inhibition of platelet aggregation

24

ACE inhibitor - hyperkalemia or hypokalemia?

Hyperkalemia due to inhibition of aldosterone - increased Na out, increased K in

25

K sparing diuretics = (4)

Spironolactone - mineralocorticoid antagonist
Eplerenone - mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist
Triamterene - inhibits ENaC
Amiloride - inhibits ENaC

26

Losartan
Candesartan
Valsartan

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs)

27

Diltiazem, Verapamil

Nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (L-type)

28

toxicity of: Cisplatin/Carboplatin

-acoustic nerve damage
-nephrotoxicity

mechanism of drug: cross links DNA

29

toxicity of: Vincristine

-peripheral neuropathy

mechanism of drug: vinca alkaloid, binds beta-tubulin -> inhibits polymerization into microtubules -> inhibits formation of mitotic spindle

30

toxicity of: Bleomycin, Busulfan

-pulmonary fibrosis

mechanism of Bleomycin: induces free radical formation -> DNA breaks
mechanism of Busulfan: cross links DNA