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Uworld Journal COPY > Renal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renal System Deck (48)
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1

MS patients have which type of urinary incontinence? What is the mechanism?

Urge incontinence.

Lesions above the sacral region of the spinal cord results in a loss of higher center control of micturition. Causes detrusor muscle hyperreflexia ("spastic bladder")

2

What is Potter Sequence?

P = pulmonary hypoplasia
O = oligohydramnios - stimulus
T = twisted skin (wrinkled)
T = twisted face (Potter facies/flat facies)
E = extremities defects (club foot)
R = renal agenesis, bilateral

3

Cause/inciting factor for Potter Sequence?

Renal anomalies -> oligohydramnios -> POTTER

4

Pipestem fibrosis (periportal fibrosis) + patient swam in a freshwater lake recently =

Hepatic schistosomiasis - S. japonicum, S. mansoni

5

Blood supply of proximal, middle and distal ureter

Proximal = renal artery
Middle = multiple anastamoses
Distal = superior vesicle artery

6

Which type of urinary incontinence is common in type 1 DM patients? What is the mechanism?

Overflow incontinence

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy -> decreased innervation of the detrusor muscle results in impaired contraction

7

Chronic kidney hypoperfusion results in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of which cells?

Juxtaglomerular cells = modified smooth muscle cells that are part of the afferent arteriole

8

Non-lactose fermenting cause of UTI?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

9

"Lumpy-bumpy" deposits + tea colored urine + periorbital edema =

Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

10

What are the Post-Streptococcal glomerulonephritis deposits made of and where are they located?

IgG, IgM, C3

subepithelial deposits

11

Kimmelsteil Wilson nodules =

Nephrotic vs Nephritic

Diabetic nephropathy

Nephrotic

12

What is the first thing you should think of if someone has been taking naproxen for 3+ month daily?

Chronic interstitial necrosis (drug-induced)

13

Dysuria definition

painful urination

14

Which structure blocks the ascent of the kidneys in a horseshoe malformation?

Inferior mesenteric artery (L3)

15

Clearance of which substance is used to calculate RBF and RPF?

PAH

16

Clearance of which substances is used to calculate GFR?

-inulin
-creatine

17

Female + glomerulonephritis + photosensitive skin rash+ arthalgias + reproductive age =

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

18

Female + arthralgias + african american + prolonged PTT + 2 spontaneous abortions + positive PRP test + negative Treponema pallidum immunoassay =

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

19

2 causes of sterile pyuria =

-acute pyelonephritis - rare
-non-gonococcal urethritis + cystitis - Chlamydia or Ureaplasma

20

Toddler's painless GI bleeding =

Meckel's diverticulum = failure of obliteration of the vitelline/omphalomesenteric duct

21

Failure of abdominal wall closure, viscera not covered with peritoneum =

Gastroschisis

22

internal urethral sphincter
-contraction
-relaxation

contraction = sympathetic
relaxation = parasympathetic

23

Thyroidization of the kidney =

chronic pyelonephritis

24

Crescent shaped proliferation within the glomerulus =

What are they made of?

Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis

Crescents made of fibrin + plasma proteins (C3b)

25

Wire looping of capillaries =

Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis

26

Tramtracks on PAS stain + subendothelial deposits =

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Type 1

27

Pathology of Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Type 2 =

C3 convertase stabilization -> decreased levels of active C3 -> less inflammation

28

Crescent glomeruli + sinusitis + lung involvement + negative IF stain =

Granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegner's) -> Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

29

Negative IF stain + proteinuria = 5 + child =

Minimal Change Disease

30

Which phase of ATN is this?

oliguric - hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, increased ECF volume, hyponatremia, hypocalcemia

Maintenance phase
(2nd)