Flashcards in Renal System Deck (48)
MS patients have which type of urinary incontinence? What is the mechanism?
Lesions above the sacral region of the spinal cord results in a loss of higher center control of micturition. Causes detrusor muscle hyperreflexia ("spastic bladder")
What is Potter Sequence?
P = pulmonary hypoplasia
O = oligohydramnios - stimulus
T = twisted skin (wrinkled)
T = twisted face (Potter facies/flat facies)
E = extremities defects (club foot)
R = renal agenesis, bilateral
Cause/inciting factor for Potter Sequence?
Renal anomalies -> oligohydramnios -> POTTER
Pipestem fibrosis (periportal fibrosis) + patient swam in a freshwater lake recently =
Hepatic schistosomiasis - S. japonicum, S. mansoni
Blood supply of proximal, middle and distal ureter
Proximal = renal artery
Middle = multiple anastamoses
Distal = superior vesicle artery
Which type of urinary incontinence is common in type 1 DM patients? What is the mechanism?
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy -> decreased innervation of the detrusor muscle results in impaired contraction
Chronic kidney hypoperfusion results in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of which cells?
Juxtaglomerular cells = modified smooth muscle cells that are part of the afferent arteriole
Non-lactose fermenting cause of UTI?
"Lumpy-bumpy" deposits + tea colored urine + periorbital edema =
What are the Post-Streptococcal glomerulonephritis deposits made of and where are they located?
IgG, IgM, C3
Kimmelsteil Wilson nodules =
Nephrotic vs Nephritic
What is the first thing you should think of if someone has been taking naproxen for 3+ month daily?
Chronic interstitial necrosis (drug-induced)
Which structure blocks the ascent of the kidneys in a horseshoe malformation?
Inferior mesenteric artery (L3)
Clearance of which substance is used to calculate RBF and RPF?
Clearance of which substances is used to calculate GFR?
Female + glomerulonephritis + photosensitive skin rash+ arthalgias + reproductive age =
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Female + arthralgias + african american + prolonged PTT + 2 spontaneous abortions + positive PRP test + negative Treponema pallidum immunoassay =
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
2 causes of sterile pyuria =
-acute pyelonephritis - rare
-non-gonococcal urethritis + cystitis - Chlamydia or Ureaplasma
Toddler's painless GI bleeding =
Meckel's diverticulum = failure of obliteration of the vitelline/omphalomesenteric duct
Failure of abdominal wall closure, viscera not covered with peritoneum =
internal urethral sphincter
contraction = sympathetic
relaxation = parasympathetic
Thyroidization of the kidney =
Crescent shaped proliferation within the glomerulus =
What are they made of?
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
Crescents made of fibrin + plasma proteins (C3b)
Wire looping of capillaries =
Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis
Tramtracks on PAS stain + subendothelial deposits =
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Type 1
Pathology of Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Type 2 =
C3 convertase stabilization -> decreased levels of active C3 -> less inflammation
Crescent glomeruli + sinusitis + lung involvement + negative IF stain =
Granulomatosis with polyangitis (Wegner's) -> Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Negative IF stain + proteinuria = 5 + child =
Minimal Change Disease