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Flashcards in Cardiovascular system Deck (113)
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What 3 factors regulate Cardiac Stroke Volume

1. The degree of stretch in the heart before it contracts
2.The forcefulness of contraction of individual ventricular muscle fibres
3.The pressure required to eject blood from the ventricles


What is the inflammation of the endocardium typically involving the heart valves? [Mostly caused by bacteria]

[Bacterial] Endocarditis


What is myocarditis

Inflammation of the myocardium that usually occurs as a complication of a viral infection, rheumatic fever or exposure to radiation or certain chemicals or medications


Medical term for Heart Enlargement?



What is Cardiac Catheterization

A procedure used to visualise the heart's coronary arteries, chambers, valves and great vessels.


What is the medical term meaning cessation of an effective heartbeat

Cardiac Arrest


What is the medical term describing failure of the myocardium to contract



Name the X-ray examination of the heart and great blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque dye into the bloodstream



List some types of arrythymias

SVT - Supraventricular Tachycardia
Heart Block
APC - Atrial Premature Contraction
AF - Atrial Fibrillation
VPC - Ventricular Premature Contraction
VT/Vtach - Ventricular Tachycardia
VF Ventricular Fibrillation


What does arrhythmia or dysrhythmia refer to?

An abnormal rhythm as a result in the conduction system of the heart. The heart may beat too fast or too slow.


What does PDA stand for and what is it?

Patent Ductus Arteriosus - A congenital heart defect


What are the treatments for myocardial infarction

Injection of a thrombolytic (Clot dissolving) agent e.g. streptokinase or tpa, plus heparin (anti-coagulant)
Performing coronary angioplasty
Coronary artery bypass grafting


What might happen if the size and location of an infarcted area of heart tissue is significant?

It may disrupt the conducting system of the heart and cause sudden death by triggering ventricular fibrillation


What happens to the heart tissue distal to an obstructed artery?

The tissue dies and is replaced by non-contractile scar tissue and consequently the heart loses some of its strength


What does infarction mean?

The death of an area of tissue because of interrupted blood supply


What might occur as a result of an obstruction to blood flow in a coronary artery?

Myocardial Infarction


Which areas of the body is the pain in angina pectoris referred to (in many instances)?

Down the left arm to the elbow


What is Angina Pectoris and what condition of the heart does it usually accompany?

It literally means "strangled chest" and is a severe pain. It often accompanies myocardial ischemia


What is Myocardial Ischemia

The medical term for a condition of reduced blood flow to the myocardium.


What drugs are used to treat coronary artery disease?

Anti-hypertensive drugs
Cholesterol lowering agents
Clot dissolving agents (thrombolytic)


How are smooth muscle fibres involved in forming an atherosclerotic plaque?

They form a cap on top of the fatty streak formed by the foamy macrophages and T-cells


How is it that despite the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries, blood can flow through the affected arteries with relative ease sometimes for decades?

Atherosclerotic plaques expand away from the bloodstream rather than into it.


What is the difference in LDL and HDL? Which type is better for our health?

LDL - Transports cholesterol from liver to body cells for use in cell membrane repair and production of steroid hormones and bile salts
HDL - Removes excess cholesterol from body cells and transports it to the liver for elimination.

High levels of LDLs are associated with higher risk of CAD.


Why are high levels of LDL considered bad for our health?

They are associated with a increased risk of Coronary Artery Disease due to their promotion of atherosclerosis. They are often referred to as bad cholesterol.


Name two major lipo proteins

LDL - Low density Lipo proteins
HDL - High density Lipo proteins


Describe the structure of a lipo protein including where in the body they are made.

Manufactured by the liver and small intestine.
Spherical particle
Inner core of triglycerides and other lipids
Outer shell of proteins, phospholipids and cholesterol


What 3 substances make up an atherosclerotic plaque?

1) Fatty substances
2) Cholesterol
3) Smooth muscle fibres


How does Homocysteine possibly increase the likelihood of coronary artery disease?

It's an amino acid that may induce blood vessel damage by promoting platelet aggregation and smooth muscle fibre proliferation


How does fibrinogen increase the risk of Coronary Artery Disease?

May help regulate cellular proliferation, vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation.


What is a Lipoprotein? (In relation to CAD)

LDL like particle
Binds to endothelial cells, macrophages and blood platelets
May promote proliferation of smooth muscle fibres
Inhibits breakdown of blood clots