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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (49):
1

List the organs that make up the Urinary system

Kidney
Ureters
Urinary Bladder
Urethra

2

How large is an average sized kidney

11cm long
6cm wide
3cm thick

3

Where are the kidneys located in the body

Posterior to (behind) abdominal wall
Inferior to (below) diaphragm

4

What is the Hillum?

Site of the kidney where renal arteries enter and veins and ureters leave

5

Which border is the Hillum of the kidney located?

Medial

6

What is the function of the Ureters?

Carry urine from Kidney to Bladder

7

How long are the Ureters?

25-30cm long

8

Which ureter is longer and why?

The right ureter because the right kidney is positioned higher than the left.

9

What movement occurs in the ureter and how often?

Peristalsis
4-5 times per minute

10

Describe the structure of a ureter.

Thick walled, narrow tube - 3mm diameter

11

What is the function of the Urinary bladder?

Storage of urine

12

How much urine can the bladder hold

Normally 230-300ml
Up to 500ml but this is painful

13

How many layers of tissue does the bladder have and what are they known as?

3 layers
Serous
Muscular
Inner mucous coat

14

What is the function of the uretha?

Pass urine to exterior

15

How long is the urethra in men and women?

Men - 18-20cm long
Women - 4cm long

16

How does the male and female urethra differ in function?

In women it serves the urinary system only
In men it is a common canal for reproductive and urinary system

17

List the functions of the Kidney

Body fluid Volume and osmolality Regulation
Electrolyte balance
Formation of urine through which metabolic waste products and toxins are released
Acid-base balance
Production of hormones and enzymes

18

What is Osmolality?

The concentration of solutes in the body fluid

19

What is the functional unit of the kidney known as?

Nephron

20

What are the component parts of the nephron in order?

Glomerulus
Bowman's Capsule
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Loop of Henle (Descending Limb)
Loop of Henle (Ascending Limb)
Distal convoluted Tubule
Collecting Duct

21

Name the four stages of blood filtration occurring in the nephron.

Glomerular Filtration
Tubular Reabsorption
Tubular Secretion
Water Conservation

22

What type of arteriole enters the glomerular capsule?

Afferent

23

What type of arteriole leaves the glomerular capsule?

Efferent

24

How is kidney disease diagnosed?

By reference to Glomerular Filtration rate

25

What is the definition of chronic kidney disease?

GFR <60ml /min for more than 3 months

26

How many stages are there to kidney disease?

5

27

What is stage 5 kidney disease more commonly known as?

Renal failure or end stage renal disease

28

What are the only available treatments for stage 5 kidney disease?

Renal dialysis or transplantation

29

What is a normal GFR?

90-140 ml / min

30

Which two parts of the nephron are particularly important in urine production?

Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal Tubule
Collecting duct

31

Why do microvilli line the PCT?

Create a greater surface area for reabsorption

32

Why are there lots of mitochondria in the PCT?

Because solutes are reabsorbed in the PCT by the process of active transport

33

What are type of substances absorbed by the PCT?

Sodium
Glucose
Amino Acids
Water

34

How is sodium absorbed by the PCT?

Active transport

35

How is Glucose and Amino Acids absorbed by the PCT?

Secondary Active Transport

36

Water is absorbed by the PCT as a result of which transport method (form of diffusion)?

Osmosis

37

With regard to reabsorption of substances in the PCT, what happens when transport proteins in the plasma membrane are saturated?

Glycosuria can occur as no more glucose can be reabsorbed

38

Where in the nephron does counter current exchange take place?

Loop of Henle in Nephron

39

What substances are absorbed in the Loop of Henle and the distal tubule and collecting ducts?

Sodium
Water

40

How is sodium and water reabsorption regulated in the distal tubule and collecting ducts?

By hormones

41

Why is counter current exchange useful?

It allows the kidneys to produce concentrated urine when there is a need to conserve water

42

Where is potassium secreted in the nephron?

Distal Tubule and Collecting ducts

43

Release of what hormone increases blood volume?

Aldosterone

44

What effect does aldosterone have on electrolytes in the nephron?

Stimulates sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the distal tubule and collecting duct

45

Release of what hormone leads to a decrease in blood volume?

Atrial Natriuetic Peptide

46

What effect does Atrial Natriuetic Peptide have on Sodium?

It increases it's excretion

47

What is ADH?

Anti-diuretic Hormone

48

What effect does an increase in ADH have on the nephrons?

The collecting ducts reabsorb more water

49

What effect does a decrease in ADH have on the nephrons?

It causes a decrease in water reabsorption in the collecting ducts