Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (49)
List the organs that make up the Urinary system
How large is an average sized kidney
Where are the kidneys located in the body
Posterior to (behind) abdominal wall
Inferior to (below) diaphragm
What is the Hillum?
Site of the kidney where renal arteries enter and veins and ureters leave
Which border is the Hillum of the kidney located?
What is the function of the Ureters?
Carry urine from Kidney to Bladder
How long are the Ureters?
Which ureter is longer and why?
The right ureter because the right kidney is positioned higher than the left.
What movement occurs in the ureter and how often?
4-5 times per minute
Describe the structure of a ureter.
Thick walled, narrow tube - 3mm diameter
What is the function of the Urinary bladder?
Storage of urine
How much urine can the bladder hold
Up to 500ml but this is painful
How many layers of tissue does the bladder have and what are they known as?
Inner mucous coat
What is the function of the uretha?
Pass urine to exterior
How long is the urethra in men and women?
Men - 18-20cm long
Women - 4cm long
How does the male and female urethra differ in function?
In women it serves the urinary system only
In men it is a common canal for reproductive and urinary system
List the functions of the Kidney
Body fluid Volume and osmolality Regulation
Formation of urine through which metabolic waste products and toxins are released
Production of hormones and enzymes
What is Osmolality?
The concentration of solutes in the body fluid
What is the functional unit of the kidney known as?
What are the component parts of the nephron in order?
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Loop of Henle (Descending Limb)
Loop of Henle (Ascending Limb)
Distal convoluted Tubule
Name the four stages of blood filtration occurring in the nephron.
What type of arteriole enters the glomerular capsule?
What type of arteriole leaves the glomerular capsule?
How is kidney disease diagnosed?
By reference to Glomerular Filtration rate
What is the definition of chronic kidney disease?
GFR <60ml /min for more than 3 months
How many stages are there to kidney disease?
What is stage 5 kidney disease more commonly known as?
Renal failure or end stage renal disease
What are the only available treatments for stage 5 kidney disease?
Renal dialysis or transplantation
What is a normal GFR?
90-140 ml / min