Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (62):
1

Which two hormones are released from the posterior pituitary?

Oxytocin
ADH/Vasopressin

2

What hormones are released by the Anterior Pituitary gland?

TSH
ACTH
Prolactin
FSH
LH

3

What hormones synthesised by the Hypothalamus affect the Anterior Pituitary

GHRH
GHIH
TRH
CRH
PRH
LHRH
GnRH

4

Which hormones does the Thyroid Gland Release?

T3
T4
Calcitonin

5

Which hormones does the Parathyroid gland release?

PTH (Parathormone)

6

What hormones are released by the Pancreatic Islets?

Glucagon
Insulin
Somatostatin

7

Where are Adrenocorticoids released from?

Adrenal Cortex

8

What are the names of the different Adrenocorticoids?

Glucocorticoids
Mineralocorticoids
Androgens

9

Which hormones are released from the Adrenal Medulla?

Adrenaline
Noradrenaline

10

Which hormones are released from the Ovaries?

Oestrogen
Progesterone
Inhibin
Relaxin

11

Which hormones are released by the testes?

Testosterone
Inhibin

12

What hormones are released by the kidneys?

EPO

13

What hormones are released by the Gastro-Intestinal Tract?

Gastrin
Secretin
Cholecystokinin (CCK)

14

What hormone is released by Adipose Tissue?

Leptin

15

What hormone is released in the heart?

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

16

What hormone is released by the placenta?

hCG

17

What hormone is released by the Thymus?

Thymosin

18

Which hormone is controlled by GHRH?

Growth Hormone

19

What hormones are controlled by GHIH?

Growth Hormone
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

20

What hormone is controlled by TRH?

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

21

Which Hormone is controlled by CRH?

ACTH

22

What hormone is controlled by PRH?

Prolactin

23

What hormone is controlled by PIH?

Prolactin

24

What hormone is controlled by LHRH?

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

25

What hormone is controlled by GnRH?

Luteinising Hormone

26

Growth Hormone affects what areas of the body?

Most tissues and many organs

27

What is the alternative name for Growth Hormone Release Inhibiting Hormone?

Somatostatin

28

What are the target glands or tissues affected by GHRIH?

Thyroid Gland
Pancreatic islets
Most Tissues

29

What is the target gland for TSH?

Thyroid

30

What is the target tissue for PRL or PIH?

Breast

31

What is the target tissue for FSH and LH?

Ovaries and Testes

32

Function of Growth Hormone?

Regulates metabolism
Promotes tissue growth (esp. bones & muscles)

33

Function of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone?

Stimulates growth and activity of thyroid gland and secretion of T3 and T4

34

Function of Adrenocorticotrophic hormone?

Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids

35

Function of prolactin?

Stimulates growth of breast tissue and milk production

36

Function of FSH?

Stimulates production of sperm, Stimulates secretion of oestrogen,
Maturation of ovarian follicles, Ovulation

37

Function of LH?

Stimulates secretion of testosterone by the testes,
Stimulates secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum

38

What is T3?

Tri-iodothyronine

39

What is T4?

Thyroxine

40

What mineral is essential for the formation of thyroid hormones?

Iodine

41

Why are thyroid hormones referred to as T3 and T4?

Refers to the number of iodine atoms on each molecule

42

What stimulates the release of TRH?
(LESSM)

Low Plasma Glucose Levels
Exercise
Stress
Sleep
Malnutrition

43

What triggers the release of PTH?

A fall in blood calcium levels

44

How does PTH affect blood calcium?

It raises levels of blood calcium

45

What are the target tissues of PTH?

Small intestine
Renal Tubules
Osteoclasts

46

What cells in the thyroid gland release calcitonin?

Parafollicular or C-Cells

47

How does Calcitonin affect the blood?

Reduces blood calcium levels

48

What triggers calcitonin?

If blood calcium levels are too high

49

What are the target tissues of Calcitonin?

Bone Cells
Kidney Tubules

50

What affect does calcitonin have on the renal tubules?

Inhibits reabsorption of calcium in the tubules

51

How does Calcitonin affect bone cells?

Promotes the storage of calcium

52

How do thyroid hormones affect cells?

They enter the nucleus and regulate gene expression
Enhance effects of other hormones e.g. adrenaline/noradrenaline

53

Which is more potent, T3 or T4?

T3

54

Which is more abundant, T3 or T4?

T4

55

What are hormones?

Chemical Messengers

56

Where are lipid and protein hormone receptors located in target cells?

Lipid - inside the cell
Protein - On cell membrane

57

Where is the pituitary gland located?

Hypophyseal fossa of the sphenoid bone below the hypothalamus

58

What is an alternative name for the Posterior Pituitary Gland?

Neurohypophysis

59

What is an alternative name for the anterior pituitary gland?

Adenohypophysis

60

How large is the pituitary gland?

500g - size of a pea

61

What is an up growth of glandular epithelium from the pharynx?

Anterior Pituitary Gland

62

What is a down growth of nervous tissue from the brain?

Posterior Pituitary Gland