Flashcards in Cells & Tissues Deck (51)
Functions of connective tissue? (Tip: there are 4)
Name the different types of connective tissue.
(Tip: There are 3 types)
Connective Tissue Proper
Fluid Connective Tissue
Supporting Connective Tissue
List some examples of the types of cells found within connective tissue proper.
Name and describe examples of Columnar Epithelium
Define and describe a Eukaryotic cell
Contain a nucleus with DNA (Karyon)
Size 10-40 microns (or larger)
Describe endoplasmic reticulum (inc. function).
Two types - Rough & Smooth
Rough contains Ribosomes and is the site of protein synthesis within the cell
Smooth is the site of lipid synthesis in the cell
Describe the function and characteristics of epithelial tissue
Protective / Barrier function
Control absorption / secretion
Layers of closely bound cells supported by a basal membrane
1) covering internal and external surfaces of organs
2) lining of cavities and tubes
List the different types of epithelial tissue
They can be either Simple, Stratified or Keratinised
What is the function of the Golgi Complex?
"Assembly & Packaging"
Assembly - Carbohydrate modification
Packaging - modifying & sorting proteins into vesicles
Describe the structure and function of a Lysosome
"Recycling centre of the cell"
- Small sacs containing enzymes
- Has an extreme pH
- Break down small food stuffs
- Destroy unwanted proteins and chemicals
Do Mitochondria contain DNA?
List 5 key organelles within a cell
What is a prokaryote
A single celled organism
List the common characteristics of a Prokaryotic cell
Hereditary information held in cytoplasm
Limited number of organelles
Cell wall & Capsule
1-5 Micron in size
What important eukaryotic cell does not contain a nucleus?
Example site of simple squamous epithelia
Example site(s) of stratified squamous epithelia
Oral cavities, anus, vagina, oesophageal lining
Example of keratinised stratified squamous epithelium
Skin on the palm of hands or soles of feet
What is Simple diffusion?
Net movement of chemicals from regions of a high concentration to regions of a low concentration, until they are distributed
What is Facilitated diffusion?
Plasma membrane integral carriers allow passage through protein channels
What is Osmosis?
Water or solvent chemicals move from regions of a high concentration of water or solvent chemicals through a selectively permeable membrane
What is filtration?
Hydrostatic pressure forces water and small chemicals through selectively permeable membranes from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure
What is active transport?
Plasma membrane protein carriers transport ions, chemicals from regions of a low concentration to regions of a high concentration
What is Exocytosis?
Cytoplasmic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and expel particles from the cell
What is Endocytosis?
Membrane-bound vesicles enclose large chemicals, take them into the cytoplasm, and release them
What are 3 types of Endocytosis?
What is Phagocytosis?
'Cell eating'. Ingesting of solid particles. Forms phagosomes
What is Pinocytosis?
'Cell drinking'. Ingestion of fluid droplets and their dissolved substances. Pinosomes release contents into cytoplasm
What is Receptor-mediated endocytosis?
Specific plasma membrane receptors bind with chemicals, forming ligands, and take them into the cell's cytoplasm via endosomes
Why is particle size important in relation to cell membrane permeability?
Many small molecules can pass freely through membrane whereas larger ones have difficulty and may stay in interstitial or intracellular fluid
What are pores in the cell membrane?
Channels that permit specific substances to move in and out of the cell
What is the purpose of a pump in relation to the cell membrane?
It imports or exports specific substances eg ions into and out of the cell
What substances make up the cell membrane?
Phospholipid bi-layer with proteins
Describe the structure of phospholipid molecules including electrical charges (tip: water loving/hating)
Electrically charged (polar) hydrophilic head
Non-electrically charged (non-polar) hydrophobic tail
What is the importance of the water hating central lining of the plasma membrane?
It makes interior of the plasma membrane relatively impermeable to most water soluble molecules
What effect does cholesterol have on the plasma membrane?
Helps keep it fluid
What substance forms pores in the plasma membrane?
Why is the cell surface sticky?
Presence of Glycoproteins
Are Glycoproteins present on the intracellular or extracellular space?
List functions of glycoproteins
Determine blood type
Receptors for certain bacteria, virus or toxins to bind to
Role in cell to cell interactions
List different types of membrane junctions
What is a tight junction?
Form leakproof sheets
Adjacent plasma membranes fuse like a zipper
What is a desmosome?
Prevent cells being pulled apart
What is a Gap Junction?
Chemical molecules can pass through them from one cell to another
Heart and between Embryonic cells
Are mitochondrial walls composed of a single or double membrane?
List the different types of Simple Epithelium
List the different types of Stratified Epithelium
Oesophagus, mouth and outer skin are all examples of what type of epithelium
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Ducts of large glands are examples of what 2 types of epithelium
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Which type of epithelium lines the urinary bladder, ureters and urethra