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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (89):
1

List the functions of the skeletal system. (Tip - PMS SB)

Protect internal organs Movement - provides leverage Support Storage of calcium Blood cell production

2

What tissue forms bone structure?

Specialised connective tissue

3

What are the two components of the Matrix?

Organic component Inorganic component

4

What properties does osteoid have? (SEF)

Strong Easily compressed Flexible

5

What properties does hydroxyapatite have? (HIB)

Hard Inflexible Brittle

6

What properties does the combination of osteoid and hydroxyapatite give to bone? (SFR)

Strength Flexibility Resistance to shattering

7

What 2 complexes make up osteoid?

Collagen Protein

8

What are the mineral salts that make up most of hydroxyapatite?

Calcium Phosphate Calcium Carbonate

9

Is osteoid organic or inorganic?

Organic (O for osteoid and organic)

10

Is hydroxyapatite organic or inorganic?

Inorganic

11

Cells are suspended in the matrix of bones? True or false?

True

12

Name the four cell types suspended in connective tissue matrix?

Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts Osteogenic Stem Cells

13

Which cells produce new bone and secrete osteoid?

Osteoblasts

14

What is a mature osteoblast called?

Osteocyte

15

What is the function of an osteocyte?

To maintain the connective tissue matrix in the bone

16

Where are osteocytes located?

Lacunae

17

What does Lacunae mean?

Nest

18

What is the function of an osteoclast?

Removes mineral from the matrix Bone remodelling

19

What is a mature osteogenic stem cell known as?

Osteoblast

20

Where are osteogenic stem cells found?

Perisoteum Endosteum

21

What are the two types of bone tissue?

Compact (hard, on surface) Cancellous (spongy, interior)

22

What are the component parts of a haversian system? (BLOC)

Blood vessels Lamallae Osteocytes in lacunae Canaliculi

23

What is another name for haversian system?

Osteon

24

What are the different types of lamellae? (ICC)

Interstitial Circumferential Concentric

25

What is a Canal of Volkman?

Space through which blood vessels interconnect between the individual osteons.

26

What is the benefit of osteons aligning in the same direction?

Increases unidirectional strength

27

What is lamellae?

A sheet like structure present in

28

What is the name given to the structures in cancellous bone that give rise to the spongy appearance?

Trabeculae (small beams)

29

What is contained in the spaces between trabeculae?

Red or Yellow bone marrow

30

What type of tissue is red bone marrow?

Myeloid tissue

31

Why is red bone marrow described as Haemopoietic?

It is the site of blood cell production

32

What tissue type is yellow bone marrow?

Fatty tissue

33

Under what circumstances might YBM transform back to Haemopoietic RBM?

Severe Anaemia

34

What are the different categories of bone by shape? (FLIS)

Flat Long Short Irregular

35

What are the layers of a strong bone? (PEM)

Periosteum Endosteum Marrow Cavity

36

What are the parts of a long bone? (EMD)

Epiphysis Metaphysis Diaphysis

37

What is the Diaphysis?

Shaft of a long bone

38

What is the Epiphysis?

The very end of a long bone

39

What is the metaphysis?

The part of the long bone in between the epiphysis and the diaphysis

40

What are the correct terms for bone formation?

Ossification or osteogenesis

41

What are the two methods of bone formation?

Intramembranous Endochondral

42

How many stages does intramembranous ossification have?

Three

43

What are the first stage of intramembranous ossification?

Mesenchymal cells secrete osteoid. Calcification from deposition of calcium salts. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts

44

What is the second stage of intramembranous ossification?

Blood vessels grow into area to supply nutrients and oxygen

45

What is the third and final stage of intramembranous ossification?

Initially only cancellous bone but remodelling occurs and compact bone develops

46

Where does intramembranous ossification occur?

Flat bones Clavicle

47

How many stages are there to Endochondral ossification?

Six

48

What does Endochondral translate to?

Endo = inside Chondral = Cartilage

49

What is the first stage of EO?

Cartilage model laid down

50

What is the second stage of EO?

Outer cells differentiate into osteoblasts & Produce a thin outer collar of bone. Blood supply develops

51

What is the third stage of EO?

Cells in diaphysis differentiate into osteoblasts - primary ossification centre

52

What is the fourth stage of EO?

Osteoclasts erode centre of diaphysis to form the marrow cavity

53

What is the fifth stage of EO?

Secondary ossification centres develop in the epiphyses and epiphyseal cartilage replaced by bone

54

What is the sixth stage of EO?

Thin plate of cartilage remains at the metaphysis - epiphyseal plate

55

What happens at puberty to stimulate bone growth?

An increase in sex, growth and thyroid hormones

56

What is an open fracture otherwise known as?

Compound

57

What is a closed fracture otherwise known as?

Simple

58

What is a compound fracture otherwise known as?

Open

59

What is a simple fracture otherwise known as?

Closed

60

What are the 6 classifications of fracture by break?

Spiral Oblique Transverse Greenstick Linear Comminuted

61

Why is a comminuted fracture so bad?

Because the bone shatters

62

How many stages are their involved in bone healing?

four

63

What is the average minimum length of time a bone takes to heal from a fracture?

About 8 weeks

64

What is the first stage of bone healing?

Haematoma formation

65

What is the second stage of bone healing?

Area invaded by capillaries, fibroblasts, macrophages, osteoclasts & osteogenic cells. Soft Callus forms

66

What is the third stage of bone healing?

The soft callus hardens due to mineral deposition

67

What is fourth stage of bone healing?

Remodelling by osteoclasts

68

What is a haematoma?

A solid swelling of clotted blood in the tissues

69

What are the functional classification of joints? (SAD)

Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis

70

What are the structural classification of joints? (CFS)

Cartilaginous Fibrous Synovial

71

A joint with little or no movement is otherwise known as?

Synarthrosis

72

A slightly moveable joint eg intervertebral discs?

Amphiarthrosis

73

A freely moveable joint eg hip?

Diarthrosis

74

A joint where bones are held together by cartilage eg intervertebral discs?

Cartilaginous

75

A joint where bones are held together by collagenous fibres eg skull sutures

Fibrous

76

A joint where bones are separated by a joint cavity and enclosed in a fibrous capsule?

Synovial

77

What are the classifications of synovial joints?

Ball & Socket

Hinge

Gliding

Pivot

Ellipsoid

Saddle

 

78

A shoulder joint is an example of what type of synovial joint?

Ball and socket

79

An elbow is an example of what type of synovial joint?

A hinge joint

80

A sternoclavicular joint is an example of what type of synovial joint?

A gliding joint

81

An atlantoaxial joint is what type of synovial joint?

Pivot

82

A radiocarpal is what type of synovial joint?

Ellipsoid

83

A thumb is what type of synovial joint?

Saddle

84

What movement occurs in a ball and socket joint?

Flexion and extension

Abbduction and adduction

circumduction

rotation

85

What type of movement takes place at a hinge joint?

Flexion and extension

86

What type of movement occurs in a gliding joint?

Sliding

87

What type of movement takes place in a pivot joint?

Rotation

88

What type of movement takes place in a ellipsoid joint?

Flexion and extension

Abduction and adduction

89

What type of movement takes place in a saddle joint?

Flexion and extension

Adduction and abduction