List the functions of the skeletal system. (Tip - PMS SB)
Protect internal organs Movement - provides leverage Support Storage of calcium Blood cell production
What tissue forms bone structure?
Specialised connective tissue
What are the two components of the Matrix?
Organic component Inorganic component
What properties does osteoid have? (SEF)
Strong Easily compressed Flexible
What properties does hydroxyapatite have? (HIB)
Hard Inflexible Brittle
What properties does the combination of osteoid and hydroxyapatite give to bone? (SFR)
Strength Flexibility Resistance to shattering
What 2 complexes make up osteoid?
What are the mineral salts that make up most of hydroxyapatite?
Calcium Phosphate Calcium Carbonate
Is osteoid organic or inorganic?
Organic (O for osteoid and organic)
Is hydroxyapatite organic or inorganic?
Cells are suspended in the matrix of bones? True or false?
Name the four cell types suspended in connective tissue matrix?
Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts Osteogenic Stem Cells
Which cells produce new bone and secrete osteoid?
What is a mature osteoblast called?
What is the function of an osteocyte?
To maintain the connective tissue matrix in the bone
Where are osteocytes located?
What does Lacunae mean?
What is the function of an osteoclast?
Removes mineral from the matrix Bone remodelling
What is a mature osteogenic stem cell known as?
Where are osteogenic stem cells found?
What are the two types of bone tissue?
Compact (hard, on surface) Cancellous (spongy, interior)
What are the component parts of a haversian system? (BLOC)
Blood vessels Lamallae Osteocytes in lacunae Canaliculi
What is another name for haversian system?
What are the different types of lamellae? (ICC)
Interstitial Circumferential Concentric
What is a Canal of Volkman?
Space through which blood vessels interconnect between the individual osteons.
What is the benefit of osteons aligning in the same direction?
Increases unidirectional strength
What is lamellae?
A sheet like structure present in
What is the name given to the structures in cancellous bone that give rise to the spongy appearance?
Trabeculae (small beams)
What is contained in the spaces between trabeculae?
Red or Yellow bone marrow
What type of tissue is red bone marrow?
Why is red bone marrow described as Haemopoietic?
It is the site of blood cell production
What tissue type is yellow bone marrow?
Under what circumstances might YBM transform back to Haemopoietic RBM?
What are the different categories of bone by shape? (FLIS)
Flat Long Short Irregular
What are the layers of a strong bone? (PEM)
Periosteum Endosteum Marrow Cavity
What are the parts of a long bone? (EMD)
Epiphysis Metaphysis Diaphysis
What is the Diaphysis?
Shaft of a long bone
What is the Epiphysis?
The very end of a long bone
What is the metaphysis?
The part of the long bone in between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
What are the correct terms for bone formation?
Ossification or osteogenesis
What are the two methods of bone formation?
How many stages does intramembranous ossification have?
What are the first stage of intramembranous ossification?
Mesenchymal cells secrete osteoid. Calcification from deposition of calcium salts. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts
What is the second stage of intramembranous ossification?
Blood vessels grow into area to supply nutrients and oxygen
What is the third and final stage of intramembranous ossification?
Initially only cancellous bone but remodelling occurs and compact bone develops
Where does intramembranous ossification occur?
Flat bones Clavicle
How many stages are there to Endochondral ossification?
What does Endochondral translate to?
Endo = inside Chondral = Cartilage
What is the first stage of EO?
Cartilage model laid down
What is the second stage of EO?
Outer cells differentiate into osteoblasts & Produce a thin outer collar of bone. Blood supply develops
What is the third stage of EO?
Cells in diaphysis differentiate into osteoblasts - primary ossification centre
What is the fourth stage of EO?
Osteoclasts erode centre of diaphysis to form the marrow cavity
What is the fifth stage of EO?
Secondary ossification centres develop in the epiphyses and epiphyseal cartilage replaced by bone
What is the sixth stage of EO?
Thin plate of cartilage remains at the metaphysis - epiphyseal plate
What happens at puberty to stimulate bone growth?
An increase in sex, growth and thyroid hormones
What is an open fracture otherwise known as?
What is a closed fracture otherwise known as?
What is a compound fracture otherwise known as?
What is a simple fracture otherwise known as?
What are the 6 classifications of fracture by break?
Spiral Oblique Transverse Greenstick Linear Comminuted
Why is a comminuted fracture so bad?
Because the bone shatters
How many stages are their involved in bone healing?
What is the average minimum length of time a bone takes to heal from a fracture?
About 8 weeks
What is the first stage of bone healing?
What is the second stage of bone healing?
Area invaded by capillaries, fibroblasts, macrophages, osteoclasts & osteogenic cells. Soft Callus forms
What is the third stage of bone healing?
The soft callus hardens due to mineral deposition
What is fourth stage of bone healing?
Remodelling by osteoclasts
What is a haematoma?
A solid swelling of clotted blood in the tissues
What are the functional classification of joints? (SAD)
Synarthrosis Amphiarthrosis Diarthrosis
What are the structural classification of joints? (CFS)
Cartilaginous Fibrous Synovial
A joint with little or no movement is otherwise known as?
A slightly moveable joint eg intervertebral discs?
A freely moveable joint eg hip?
A joint where bones are held together by cartilage eg intervertebral discs?
A joint where bones are held together by collagenous fibres eg skull sutures
A joint where bones are separated by a joint cavity and enclosed in a fibrous capsule?
What are the classifications of synovial joints?
Ball & Socket
A shoulder joint is an example of what type of synovial joint?
Ball and socket
An elbow is an example of what type of synovial joint?
A hinge joint
A sternoclavicular joint is an example of what type of synovial joint?
A gliding joint
An atlantoaxial joint is what type of synovial joint?
A radiocarpal is what type of synovial joint?
A thumb is what type of synovial joint?
What movement occurs in a ball and socket joint?
Flexion and extension
Abbduction and adduction
What type of movement takes place at a hinge joint?
Flexion and extension
What type of movement occurs in a gliding joint?
What type of movement takes place in a pivot joint?
What type of movement takes place in a ellipsoid joint?
Flexion and extension
Abduction and adduction
What type of movement takes place in a saddle joint?
Flexion and extension
Adduction and abduction