Cartilage Flashcards Preview

Cell and tissue > Cartilage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cartilage Deck (93):
1

What cells produce cartilage?

Chondroblasts

2

Is cartilage vascular or avascular?

Avascular

3

What are the three types of cartilage?

1. Hyaline
2. Elastic
3. Fibrocartilage

4

What is different about cartilage compared to other CT?

Elastic, but firm

5

What type of fibers does cartilage contain?

Fine, collagen fibrils

Do not stain well

6

What type of fibers does elastic cartilage have?

Fine collagen
Elastic fibers

7

What type of fibers are present in fibrocartilage?How are these arranged?

Parallel collagen bundles

8

What is the most common type of cartilage?

Hyalin

9

How does hyaline cartilage appear?

Glassy, to whitish/bluish

10

Where is hyaline cartilage found?

1. In places where is maintains a lumen (nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi)

2. At articular surfaces of bones

3. at epiphyseal plates of growing bones

11

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: the nose

hyaline cartilage

12

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: the larynx

hyaline cartilage

13

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: trachea

hyaline cartilage

14

What type of collagen would you expect to find in: bronchi

hyaline cartilage

15

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: the ventral ends of the ribs

hyaline cartilage

16

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: shoulder, hip, elbow, knee

hyaline cartilage

17

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: epiphiseal plates?

hyaline cartilage

18

What is histogenesis?

Growth of hyaline cartilage

19

What are condrification centers?

future cartilage sites

20

What type of cells form condrification centers?

Mesenchymal cells

21

What shape are mesenchymal cells?

Stellate, but turn into round

22

What cells synthesize the ECM? What type of cells give rise to this type?

Chondroblasts, which come from mesenchymal cells

23

What are lacunea?

"Bubbles" within the ECM formed by chondroblasts, where chondroblasts reside

24

What is the first step in synthesizeing the EMC of hyaline cartilage?

Mesenchymal cells retract their bodies from a stellate formation to a circular

25

What are chondrocytes?

Chondroblasts that have surrounded themselves with the ECM of hyaline cartilage

26

What are isogenous groups?

2-4 groups of cells that all spawned from a single cell, and reside in the same lacunae

27

What is interstitial growth?

When isogenous groups divide, synthesize more ECM, and cause the hyaline cartilage to grow

28

What is the perichondrium?

The membrane that surrounds ONLY hyaline and elastic cartilage

29

The perichondrium is derived from what cell type?

Mesenchyme

30

Fibroblasts spawn from what type of cells? What do they synthesize?

Spawn from mesenchyme.
Synthesize collagen

31

What are the two layers of the pericondrium?

Inner layer which is cellular

Outer layer which is fiberous (collagen I)

32

What is present in the outer layer of perichondrium?

Collagen I
fibroblasts
blood vessels
Nerves

33

What is present in the inner layer of the perichondrium?

Condrogenic cells (divide to form chondroblasts)

34

What are chondrogenic cells?

Cells that will eventually turn into chondroblasts

35

How does cartilage grow?

on the surface of an existing cartilage, known as appositional growth

36

What is appositional growth?

When a cell layer grows on top of old layers (pushing it outwards)

37

Does cartilage tissue contain blood vessels?

No

38

How does the inner cell layer get nutrition if there are no blood vessels?

Perichondrium supplies it, and since the inner cell layer is hydrated, is diffuses

39

How does the perichondirum keep the growth of the inner cell layer in check?

By how far diffusion of nutrients will go in the inner cell layer

40

What is the general function of the outer cell layer of the perichondrium? Inner?

Outer = protection
Inner = growth

41

What are the two ways in which cartilage grows?

interstitially and appositionally

42

When does interstitial growth occur in hyaline cartilage (3)?

1. during the early stages of cartilage formation
2. in articular cartilage (which does not have a perichondrium)
3. in epiphyseal plates

43

What is intersitial growth?

When cell growth occurs from within the cartilage

44

What is appositional growth?

Cell growth the occurs on the surface of cartilage?

45

Where does appositional growth take place?

In most cartilages

46

When does appositional growth occur in cartilage?

Throughout the lifespan of the cartilage

47

Interstitial growth occurs from what type of cells?

isogenous groups

48

What type of cell is responsible for appositional growth of cartilage?

Chondroblasts

49

True or false: there is no perichondrium at the ends of growth plates?

True

50

Chondrogenic cells arise from what type of cells?

Mesenchymal cells

51

Chondrogenic cells can differentiate into what two types of cells?

Chondroblasts (cartilage forming)

Osteoprogenitor cells (bone-forming cells)

52

Can chondrogenic cells synthesize cartilage?

No

53

Where are chondrogenic cells found?

Condrification centers
The deep layer of the perichondrium

54

What is the function of chondrocytes?

Maintain matrix

55

Chondroblasts function as what?

Forming the matrix and the fibers of cartilage

56

True or false: chondrocytes have a small nucleus, and a small or absent nucleolus?

False

57

What does the hyaline cartilage matrix contain?

Collagen II
proteoglycans
glyoproteins
ECF

58

Where is the ECF in the hyaline cartilage matrix

Hydrating the collagen proteoglycans

59

Is collagen stretchable?

No,

60

What are hyaluronan molecules?

hyluronic acid that forms the backbone onto which proteoglycans stick

61

What property does the interweaving of hyaluronan molecules supply the matrix?

Shock absorption / resilience

62

What percentage of water is located in the intercellular proteoglycan aggregates?

60-80%

63

What percentage of the cartilage volume is made up of the extracellular matrix?

95%

64

What forms a capsule around each of the cells in an isogenous group (4)?

Tyoe VI collagen, Hyaluronan, glycoproteins,
Sulfated proteoglycans

65

What is the stain affinity of the capsule that surrounds the isogenous groups?

Basophilic

66

What surrounds each group of isogenous cells? What is the difference between the composition of the capsular matrix, and this?

Territorial matrix

Same composition except for lower sulfated proteoglycans

67

What surrounds the territorial matrix? What is the composition if it?

Interterritorial matrix
Same composition of the territorial matrix, but more dilute

68

The cartilage matrix consists of what percentage of water that is bound to proteoglycans.

60 - 80%

69

Does hyaline cartilage have nerve fibers?

no

70

What happens to the hyaline cartilage as we age?

Calcifies

71

Where is elastic cartilage found (4)?

ear
auditory tubes
epiglottis
larynx

72

What are the two types of fibers present in elastic cartilage?

Collagen II
Elastic fibers

73

What is the color of elastic cartilage?

yellow

74

Where are elastic fibers found within the elastic cartilage?

Territorial matrix

75

Does elastic cartilage calcify with aging?

No

76

What function does fibrocartilage serve?

transition between dense connective tissue and hyaline cartilage

77

What is mostly present in the matrix of fibrocartilage?

Collagen I

78

Does fibrocartilage have a perichondrium?

No

79

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: the intervertebral discs (the annulus fibrosus specifically)?

fibrocartilage

80

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: the pubic symphysis?

fibrocartilage

81

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: articular discs (e.g. TMJ)

fibrocartilage

82

What type of cartilage would you expect to find in: menisci of the knee joint?

fibrocartilage

83

What type of cartilage would you expect to find attached to bone?

fibrocartilage

84

How are the condrocytes arranged in fibrocartilage?

in rows, squeezed between collagen bundles

85

What are fibroblasts?

proteoglycan secreting cells found in the fibrocartilage. These turn into chondrocytes when surrounded by matrix

86

What is osteoarthritis?

The breakdown of hyaline cartilage at joints (d/t lower hydration of the GAGs causes fissures)

87

What is the protein that allows for chondroblasts and chondrocytes to stay connected to the ECM?

Fibronectin

88

What are the only two types of cartilage that have a perichondrium?

Hyaline and elastic. NOT FIBROUS

89

Chondrogenic cells can differentiate into what two cells?

chondroblasts and osteoprogenitor cells

90

Chondroblasts can differentiate from what two types of cells?

mesenchymal cells
Chondrogenic cells

91

Are chondroblats acidophilic or basophilic?

basophilic

92

True or false: chondrocytes can go back to being chondroblasts?

True

93

What is the function of fibronectin?

Allows chondroblasts and chondrocyte to adhere to the ECM