Flashcards in Female Reproduction Deck (148):
What is the hormone that is synthesized in the hypothalamus, travels to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and causes the release of gonadotropin?
gonadotropin – releasing hormone (Gn – RH)
What are the three vessels/plexuses that transport hormones from the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
The primary capillary plexus, the hypophyseal portal veins, and the secondary capillary plexus
What are the cells in the anterior pituitary the secrete FSH and LH? Are they acidophils or basophils?
Gonadotropes - basophils
What are the two hormones that affect ovarian function?
LH and FSH
What does FSH stimulate?
the maturation of an ovarian follicle and prepares the enclosed oocyte for ovulation.
What part of the oocyte produces estrogen and progesterone?
What is the function of the estrogen and progesterone produced by the oocytes?
Synthesis of the endometrial lining
When do LH ad SH levels spike? What coincides with this?
Day 13 (midcycle), release of the oocyte
What does FSH do?
Stimulate the maturation of folicles in the ovary
What happens to the remaining granulosa cells after the ooyte leaves the ovary?
Turn into Corpus Luteum
What does LH do?
Stimulates the formation of the Corpus luteum
What are the relative levels of progesterone and estrogen from day 1-12ish?
When do estrogen levels spike?
Day 12, falls, then rises after day 15.
When do progesterone levels spike?
What are the three layers of the uterus?
What is the function of the corpus luteum?
Produces estrogen and progesterone
What happens to the corpus luteum if there is implantation? What if there is not?
No implantation = degenerates after 14 days, to become the corpus albuginea
Implantation = sticks around and does its thing until late pregnancy
What is the signal for the corpus luteum to stick around? What produces this?
hCG from the syncytiotrophoblast
What is below the endometrium? Is this layer shed?
Basal layer, which is not shed
What are the two types of cells that comprise the CL, and secrete estrogen/prgesterone?
Follicle granulosa and Theca cells
What is the epithelium of the ovary called? What type of epithelium is it?
Simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium (mesothelium).
What is the whitish capsule that surrounds an ovary? What is it made of?
Tunica albuginea made of dense, irr CT
What is region that is immediately deep to the tunica albuginea? What is contained within this region?
Cortical region made up of the stroma and ovarian follicles
What is the stroma of the ovarian? What is it made of?
CT layer of the cortical region made of smooth muscle fibers
Where do oocytes matures?
In the cortical region of the ovary
What is present in the medulla of the ovary?
Loose CT, blood and lymph
What happens to the surface of an ovary as women mature?
Dimples d/t deposition of collagen where follicles were
What is the process by which mature ova are produced?
What layer do ovarian CAs usually develop from?
The germinal epithelium
How is DNA content written?
1d, 2d or 4d
What does 1 d mean?
amount of DNA in 23 single chromatid chromosomes
What does 2d mean?
= amount of DNA in 23 double chromatid
OR amount of DNA in 46 single chromatid chromosomes
What does 4d mean?
amount of DNA in 46 double chromatid chromosomes
How many meiotic divisions are necessary for meiosis?
What happens prior to meiosis I in oocyte development?
S phase duplicates to form 46 double chromatids. (then G2)
When does meiosis I begin in oogenesis?
When does meiosis I stop prenatally? When does it resume?
Stops at prophase. Resumes just prior to ovulation.
When a primodial germ cells enters meiosis I, what is it then called?
A primary oocyte
How many follicles mature during ovulation? How many are released (normally)?
Many mature, 1 released
What is the DNA composition of a primary follicle (in terms of D and N number)?
What is the DNA composition of a seondary follicle (in terms of D and N number)?
What is the cell that results at the end of meiosis I on oogenesis?
When does Meiosis II begin in oogenesis?
Right after Meiosis I
When does Meiosis II stop in oogenesis?
What is released into the uterine tube: a primary or secondary oocyte? Which part of meiosis is it suspended in? What are the associated N and D numbers?
Secondary oocyte suspended at metaphase II
When does meiosis II resume from stopping at metaphase II in the secondary oocyte?
When it is fertilized by a sperm
What is the N and D number associated with a mature ovum?
When is the first polar body formed in oogenesis? What about the next two?
First one at end of meiosis 1, next two during meiosis II
When does follicle development begin in a human?
What is the next cell type in the process of oogenesis after primordial germ cell? What are the N and D numbers associated with this stage? What is the process that occurs after this?
S phase is next
Where do primordial germ cells arise from?
What happens after an oogonia undergoes S phase?
Turns to a primary oocyte with 2n, 4d
What comprises an ovarian follicle?
Oocyte surrounded by a layer of epithelial (follicular/granulosa) cells
What stimulates follicles to be released?
What type of oocyte is present in primoridal follicles? Primary and secondary follicles?
Primary oocyte stuck in prophase I
What are the stages of maturation of a follicle?
1. Primordial follicle
2. unilaminar primary follicle
3. Multilaminar primary follicle
4. Antral follicle
5. Mature (graafian) follicle
What chemical stimulate a primary/unilaminar follicle to mature?
What is the first step in maturation of a follicle after it has been activated?
What is the zona pelludica?
an acellular, gel-like (viscous) membrane that begins to form in the primordial follicle, and grows throughout the maturation process
What happens to the follicular cells going from the primodrial stage to the unilaminar stage?
Goes from simple squamous to simple cuboidal
What is the difference between follicular cells and granulosa cells?
Same cells, but change names when changes from simple cuboidal to stratified
What type of junctions exist between granulosa cells, and between granulosa cells and the oocyte?
What specialization do granulosa cells have to suspend the oocyte?
What specialization do oocytes have that contact the filopodia of the granulosa cells?
What is the theca iterna made up of?
What type of receptors do theca interna cells have?
What do theca interna cells produce? Where does this go, and what happens to it?
Androstenedione, which is converted to estradiol by granulosa cells
What is the theca externa?
Dense Collagenous CT that forms a basket around the follicle
What is characteristic of an antral (secondary) follicle?
antral spaces fillied with GAGs, proteins, etc
What is the cumulus oophorus?
The pedestal of cells that holds the oocyte in the mature follicle
What is the corona radiata?
The layer of granulosa cells that surrounds an oocyte
What stimulate the proliferation of granulosa cells, and thus enlargement of the follicle?
Is a BL present around primordial follicles?
Yes, but not easily observed with LM
What causes Meiosis I to finish?
The LH spike
What happens when the oocyte is stimulated by the LH spike and undergoes Meiosis II to metaphase?
Loses connection with the granulosa cells, and floats in the liquor folliculi
What are follicular stigma?
Clear, pale spots on the ovary follicle d/t decreased blood flow
What is the corona radiata made of?
What happens to the folliular stigma?
Proteases come and destroy the area to allow for the oocyte to leave
What two cells go on to form the corpus luteum?
Granulosa and thecal cells
How long does the corpus luteum last if there is no implantation of the oocyte? What does it then turn into?
From day 15 to 28, when it then becomes the corpus albegina
When in the mentrual cycle does implantation occur?
How long does it take for the syncytiotrophoblast to develop after fertilization?
What is the basis of UPTs?
hCG in the urine
What happens to the theca interna cells after implantation? Granuloca cells?
Differentiate into theca lutein and granulosa lutein cells forming the CL
What is the corpus albicans?
The dense CT scar formed after the corpus luteum regresses following menstruation or pregnancy
What are the white areas inside the corpus luteum cells seen at the LM level?
What are the three glycoporteins that are present in the zona pellucida?
ZP-1, ZP-2 and ZP-3 glycoproteins.
What is the function of ZP-3?
serves as the spermatozoa-binding receptor and induces the acrosome reaction
What is the function of ZP-2?
secondary spermatozoa-binding protein
What is the function of the ZP-1 glycoprotein?
Is polycystic ovarian disease unilateral or bilateral?
What is the cause of polycystic ovarian disease?
A thickened TA covering the ovaries results in many fluid-filled follicular cysts and atrophic secondary follicles that remain embedded in the ovary
Why are pts who have polycystic ovarian disease infertile?
The TA is too thick to allow passage of follicles/oocytes
Which hormone is not produced by the granulosa cells (no CL) in pts with polycystic ovarian disease? What is the effect of this?
Progesterone. Needs to replace.
What is stein-Leventhal syndrome?
Oligomenorrhea in polycystic ovarian syndrome
What type of CT makes up the TA?
What must sperm pierce before they come into contact with the ZP-3 glycoprotein?
the corona radiata
What allows sperm to pierce the corona radiata of the oocyte?
enzymes in its acrosome
What is the zona reaction? What causes it?
Change in the ZP so that it becomes impermeable to other sperm, caused by sperm enzymes
What happens to a sperm that comes in close proximity to a secondary oocyte? What causes this?
Becomes hyperactivated, due to the influx of Ca2+ into the sperm’s tail. This helps the sperm enter the oocyte
What causes the rearrangement of the morula into a blasocyst?
Passage of fluid into it
What are the four parts of the fallopian tube?
4. Uterine part
Where in the fallopian tube dies fertilization usually take place?
What is the infundibulum?
"trumpet" shaped part of the falliopian tube
What are the outstretches of the infundibulum called?
What portion of the uterine tube's length is composed of the ampulla?
What is the constricted part of the uterine after the ampulla called?
What are the three major histological layers of the fallopian tube?
What is the purpose of the folds of the mucosa in the uterine tube?
Increases surface area
What type of epithelium comprises the uterine tube? What specialization does it have?
Simple columnar with cilia to move the oocyte
What is the function of the nonciliated peg cells that comprise part of the epithelium of the fallopian tube?
produce nutrient-rich, protective secretions
for oocyte, sperm, or zygote
What type of CT comprises the lamina propria of the Fallopian tube?
What are the two layers of muscle present in the muscularis layer of the Fallopian tube?
Inner circular layer
Outer longitudinal layer
What comprises the serosa part of the Fallopian tube?
Mesothelium with loose CT beneath that
What happens to the lumen of the Fallopian tube as you progress from the infundibulum to the isthmus?
What are the three layers of the uterus?
What type of epithelium comprises the endometrium of the uterus?
Simple columnar with cilia
What is the functioon of the non-ciliated cells of the uterus?
What type of glands are present in the lamina propria of the uterus?
Simple, branched tubular
What type of CT comprises the lamina propria of the uterus?
What is the stratum functinale of the endometrium? What happens if pregnancy occurs?
Functional layer that is sloughed off at menstruation, or turns into the Decidua if prego
What does the basal layer of the LP of the endometrium contain?
What are the arteries that are present int the basal layer of the lamina propria in the uterine endometrium?
Single uterine artery gives rise to actuate arteries and radial arteries.
What are the two arteries that branch off of the radial arteries in the endometrium? What do these supply?
Spiral arteries - suppler functional layer
Straigh arteries - supply basal layer
What are the three layers of the myometrium?
1 Inner longitudinal layer
2 middle circular layer
3 outer longitudinal later
What happens to the muscles that comprise the myometrium during pregnency?
undergo hypertrophy (an increase in size of existing smooth muscle cells) and
hyperplasty (an increase in the number of smooth muscle cells, via mitotic cell division)
What are the two components of the perimetrium? What type of CT comprise each of these?
a. serosa: mesothelium and loose connective tissue
b. adventitia: connective tissue which attaches to surrounding structures
What type of epitheilum is present in the cervix?
Simple columnar with underlying DCT
What does the epithelium of the cervix secrete?
What type of epithelium does the vaginal part of the cervix contain?
stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelium
What are Nabothian cysts?
result from secretions obstructing the ducts of the cervical glands
What influences the consistency of the mucus in the cervix?
What are the three phases of the menstrual cycle? What are the days associated with each?
1. Menstrual phase (1-4 days)
2. Proliferative phase (5-14 days)
3. Secretory phase (15-28)
What causes the endometrium to slough off (not the hormonal change)
Decreased blood flow to the area
What occurs in the proliferative phase of the mentrual cycle?
Estrogen stimulates development of the functional layer of the uterus
What happens in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle?
Progesterone stimulates the synthesis and secretion of glycoproteins by uterine glands
What happens in the menstrual phase of menstruation?
What happens to the glands of the endometrium as the secretory phase progresses?
go from simple, straight tubular to spiraled tubular
What causes the bleeding seen in menstruation?
Breakage of the spiral arteries
What are uterine leiomyomas?
Fibroids--benign neoplasms of smooth muscle origin in the endometrium
What are the three types of uterine leiomyomas?
1. Intramural (embedded within the myometrium).
2. Submucosal (deep to the uterine mucosa, bulging into the uterine cavity).
3. Subserosal (deep to the serosa).
What happens to uterine leiomyomas?
H. When large and multiple, usually cause abnormally heavy menstrual periods.
What are the compliations of pregnancy that result from leiomyomas?
Increased change of miscarriage
What type of epithelum comprises the vagina?
a. stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelium
What comprises the lamina propria of the vagina?
abundant elastic fibers, loose fibroelastic connective tissue, lymphocytes, neutrophils.
Are there glands in the wall of the vagina?
What are the muscular layers of the vagina?
thin inner layer, circular smooth muscle fibers.
- thicker outer layer, longitudinal fibers, continuous with corresponding uterine layer