Female Reproduction Flashcards Preview

Cell and tissue > Female Reproduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproduction Deck (148):
1

What is the hormone that is synthesized in the hypothalamus, travels to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and causes the release of gonadotropin?

gonadotropin – releasing hormone (Gn – RH)

2

What are the three vessels/plexuses that transport hormones from the hypothalamus to the pituitary?

The primary capillary plexus, the hypophyseal portal veins, and the secondary capillary plexus

3

What are the cells in the anterior pituitary the secrete FSH and LH? Are they acidophils or basophils?

Gonadotropes - basophils

4

What are the two hormones that affect ovarian function?

LH and FSH

5

What does FSH stimulate?

the maturation of an ovarian follicle and prepares the enclosed oocyte for ovulation.

6

What part of the oocyte produces estrogen and progesterone?

Granulosa cells

7

What is the function of the estrogen and progesterone produced by the oocytes?

Synthesis of the endometrial lining

8

When do LH ad SH levels spike? What coincides with this?

Day 13 (midcycle), release of the oocyte

9

What does FSH do?

Stimulate the maturation of folicles in the ovary

10

What happens to the remaining granulosa cells after the ooyte leaves the ovary?

Turn into Corpus Luteum

11

What does LH do?

Stimulates the formation of the Corpus luteum

12

What are the relative levels of progesterone and estrogen from day 1-12ish?

Low

13

When do estrogen levels spike?

Day 12, falls, then rises after day 15.

14

When do progesterone levels spike?

Day 15

15

What are the three layers of the uterus?

Perimetrium
Myometrium
Endometrium

16

What is the function of the corpus luteum?

Produces estrogen and progesterone

17

What happens to the corpus luteum if there is implantation? What if there is not?

No implantation = degenerates after 14 days, to become the corpus albuginea

Implantation = sticks around and does its thing until late pregnancy

18

What is the signal for the corpus luteum to stick around? What produces this?

hCG from the syncytiotrophoblast

19

What is below the endometrium? Is this layer shed?

Basal layer, which is not shed

20

What are the two types of cells that comprise the CL, and secrete estrogen/prgesterone?

Follicle granulosa and Theca cells

21

What is the epithelium of the ovary called? What type of epithelium is it?

Germinal epithelium

Simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium (mesothelium).

22

What is the whitish capsule that surrounds an ovary? What is it made of?

Tunica albuginea made of dense, irr CT

23

What is region that is immediately deep to the tunica albuginea? What is contained within this region?

Cortical region made up of the stroma and ovarian follicles

24

What is the stroma of the ovarian? What is it made of?

CT layer of the cortical region made of smooth muscle fibers

25

Where do oocytes matures?

In the cortical region of the ovary

26

What is present in the medulla of the ovary?

Loose CT, blood and lymph

27

What happens to the surface of an ovary as women mature?

Dimples d/t deposition of collagen where follicles were

28

What is the process by which mature ova are produced?

Oogenesis

29

What layer do ovarian CAs usually develop from?

The germinal epithelium

30

How is DNA content written?

1d, 2d or 4d

31

What does 1 d mean?

amount of DNA in 23 single chromatid chromosomes

32

What does 2d mean?

= amount of DNA in 23 double chromatid

OR amount of DNA in 46 single chromatid chromosomes

33

What does 4d mean?

amount of DNA in 46 double chromatid chromosomes

34

How many meiotic divisions are necessary for meiosis?

2

35

What happens prior to meiosis I in oocyte development?

S phase duplicates to form 46 double chromatids. (then G2)

36

When does meiosis I begin in oogenesis?

Prenatally

37

When does meiosis I stop prenatally? When does it resume?

Stops at prophase. Resumes just prior to ovulation.

38

When a primodial germ cells enters meiosis I, what is it then called?

A primary oocyte

39

How many follicles mature during ovulation? How many are released (normally)?

Many mature, 1 released

40

What is the DNA composition of a primary follicle (in terms of D and N number)?

2n, 4d

41

What is the DNA composition of a seondary follicle (in terms of D and N number)?

1n-2d

42

What is the cell that results at the end of meiosis I on oogenesis?

Secondary oocyte

43

When does Meiosis II begin in oogenesis?

Right after Meiosis I

44

When does Meiosis II stop in oogenesis?

Metaphase II

45

What is released into the uterine tube: a primary or secondary oocyte? Which part of meiosis is it suspended in? What are the associated N and D numbers?

Secondary oocyte suspended at metaphase II

1n-2d

46

When does meiosis II resume from stopping at metaphase II in the secondary oocyte?

When it is fertilized by a sperm

47

What is the N and D number associated with a mature ovum?

1n, 1d

48

When is the first polar body formed in oogenesis? What about the next two?

First one at end of meiosis 1, next two during meiosis II

49

When does follicle development begin in a human?

At puberty

50

What is the next cell type in the process of oogenesis after primordial germ cell? What are the N and D numbers associated with this stage? What is the process that occurs after this?

Oogonia, 2n-2d

S phase is next

51

Where do primordial germ cells arise from?

Umbilical vesicle

52

What happens after an oogonia undergoes S phase?

Turns to a primary oocyte with 2n, 4d

53

What comprises an ovarian follicle?

Oocyte surrounded by a layer of epithelial (follicular/granulosa) cells

54

What stimulates follicles to be released?

FSH

55

What type of oocyte is present in primoridal follicles? Primary and secondary follicles?

Primary oocyte stuck in prophase I

56

What are the stages of maturation of a follicle?

1. Primordial follicle
2. unilaminar primary follicle
3. Multilaminar primary follicle
4. Antral follicle
5. Mature (graafian) follicle

57

What chemical stimulate a primary/unilaminar follicle to mature?

Activin

58

What is the first step in maturation of a follicle after it has been activated?

Stratification

59

What is the zona pelludica?

an acellular, gel-like (viscous) membrane that begins to form in the primordial follicle, and grows throughout the maturation process

60

What happens to the follicular cells going from the primodrial stage to the unilaminar stage?

Goes from simple squamous to simple cuboidal

61

What is the difference between follicular cells and granulosa cells?

Same cells, but change names when changes from simple cuboidal to stratified

62

What type of junctions exist between granulosa cells, and between granulosa cells and the oocyte?

gap junctinos

63

What specialization do granulosa cells have to suspend the oocyte?

Filopodia

64

What specialization do oocytes have that contact the filopodia of the granulosa cells?

Microvilli

65

What is the theca iterna made up of?

Endocrine cells

66

What type of receptors do theca interna cells have?

LH receptors

67

What do theca interna cells produce? Where does this go, and what happens to it?

Androstenedione, which is converted to estradiol by granulosa cells

68

What is the theca externa?

Dense Collagenous CT that forms a basket around the follicle

69

What is characteristic of an antral (secondary) follicle?

antral spaces fillied with GAGs, proteins, etc

70

What is the cumulus oophorus?

The pedestal of cells that holds the oocyte in the mature follicle

71

What is the corona radiata?

The layer of granulosa cells that surrounds an oocyte

72

What stimulate the proliferation of granulosa cells, and thus enlargement of the follicle?

Estrogen

73

Is a BL present around primordial follicles?

Yes, but not easily observed with LM

74

What causes Meiosis I to finish?

The LH spike

75

What happens when the oocyte is stimulated by the LH spike and undergoes Meiosis II to metaphase?

Loses connection with the granulosa cells, and floats in the liquor folliculi

76

What are follicular stigma?

Clear, pale spots on the ovary follicle d/t decreased blood flow

77

What is the corona radiata made of?

Granulosa cells

78

What happens to the folliular stigma?

Proteases come and destroy the area to allow for the oocyte to leave

79

What two cells go on to form the corpus luteum?

Granulosa and thecal cells

80

How long does the corpus luteum last if there is no implantation of the oocyte? What does it then turn into?

From day 15 to 28, when it then becomes the corpus albegina

81

When in the mentrual cycle does implantation occur?

Day 20-21

82

How long does it take for the syncytiotrophoblast to develop after fertilization?

7 days

83

What is the basis of UPTs?

hCG in the urine

84

What happens to the theca interna cells after implantation? Granuloca cells?

Differentiate into theca lutein and granulosa lutein cells forming the CL

85

What is the corpus albicans?

The dense CT scar formed after the corpus luteum regresses following menstruation or pregnancy

86

What are the white areas inside the corpus luteum cells seen at the LM level?

Lipids

87

What are the three glycoporteins that are present in the zona pellucida?

ZP-1, ZP-2 and ZP-3 glycoproteins.

88

What is the function of ZP-3?

serves as the spermatozoa-binding receptor and induces the acrosome reaction

89

What is the function of ZP-2?

secondary spermatozoa-binding protein

90

What is the function of the ZP-1 glycoprotein?

Unknown

91

Is polycystic ovarian disease unilateral or bilateral?

bilateral

92

What is the cause of polycystic ovarian disease?

A thickened TA covering the ovaries results in many fluid-filled follicular cysts and atrophic secondary follicles that remain embedded in the ovary

93

Why are pts who have polycystic ovarian disease infertile?

The TA is too thick to allow passage of follicles/oocytes

94

Which hormone is not produced by the granulosa cells (no CL) in pts with polycystic ovarian disease? What is the effect of this?

Progesterone. Needs to replace.

95

What is stein-Leventhal syndrome?

Oligomenorrhea in polycystic ovarian syndrome

96

What type of CT makes up the TA?

Dense, irr

97

What must sperm pierce before they come into contact with the ZP-3 glycoprotein?

the corona radiata

98

What allows sperm to pierce the corona radiata of the oocyte?

enzymes in its acrosome

99

What is the zona reaction? What causes it?

Change in the ZP so that it becomes impermeable to other sperm, caused by sperm enzymes

100

What happens to a sperm that comes in close proximity to a secondary oocyte? What causes this?

Becomes hyperactivated, due to the influx of Ca2+ into the sperm’s tail. This helps the sperm enter the oocyte

101

What causes the rearrangement of the morula into a blasocyst?

Passage of fluid into it

102

What are the four parts of the fallopian tube?

1. Infudibulum
2. ampulla
3. isthmus
4. Uterine part

103

Where in the fallopian tube dies fertilization usually take place?

Ampulla

104

What is the infundibulum?

"trumpet" shaped part of the falliopian tube

105

What are the outstretches of the infundibulum called?

Fimbriae

106

What portion of the uterine tube's length is composed of the ampulla?

2/3rds.

107

What is the constricted part of the uterine after the ampulla called?

Isthmus

108

What are the three major histological layers of the fallopian tube?

Mucosa
Muscularis
Serosa

109

What is the purpose of the folds of the mucosa in the uterine tube?

Increases surface area

110

What type of epithelium comprises the uterine tube? What specialization does it have?

Simple columnar with cilia to move the oocyte

111

What is the function of the nonciliated peg cells that comprise part of the epithelium of the fallopian tube?

produce nutrient-rich, protective secretions
for oocyte, sperm, or zygote

112

What type of CT comprises the lamina propria of the Fallopian tube?

loose CT

113

What are the two layers of muscle present in the muscularis layer of the Fallopian tube?

Inner circular layer
Outer longitudinal layer

114

What comprises the serosa part of the Fallopian tube?

Mesothelium with loose CT beneath that

115

What happens to the lumen of the Fallopian tube as you progress from the infundibulum to the isthmus?

gets smaller

116

What are the three layers of the uterus?

1. Endometrium
2. Myometrium
3. Perimetrium

117

What type of epithelium comprises the endometrium of the uterus?

Simple columnar with cilia

118

What is the functioon of the non-ciliated cells of the uterus?

Secrete glycoproteins

119

What type of glands are present in the lamina propria of the uterus?

Simple, branched tubular

120

What type of CT comprises the lamina propria of the uterus?

dense, irr

121

What is the stratum functinale of the endometrium? What happens if pregnancy occurs?

Functional layer that is sloughed off at menstruation, or turns into the Decidua if prego

122

What does the basal layer of the LP of the endometrium contain?

blood, CT

123

What are the arteries that are present int the basal layer of the lamina propria in the uterine endometrium?

Single uterine artery gives rise to actuate arteries and radial arteries.

124

What are the two arteries that branch off of the radial arteries in the endometrium? What do these supply?

Spiral arteries - suppler functional layer

Straigh arteries - supply basal layer

125

What are the three layers of the myometrium?

1 Inner longitudinal layer
2 middle circular layer
3 outer longitudinal later

126

What happens to the muscles that comprise the myometrium during pregnency?

undergo hypertrophy (an increase in size of existing smooth muscle cells) and
hyperplasty (an increase in the number of smooth muscle cells, via mitotic cell division)

127

What are the two components of the perimetrium? What type of CT comprise each of these?

a. serosa: mesothelium and loose connective tissue
OR
b. adventitia: connective tissue which attaches to surrounding structures

128

What type of epitheilum is present in the cervix?

Simple columnar with underlying DCT

129

What does the epithelium of the cervix secrete?

Mucus

130

What type of epithelium does the vaginal part of the cervix contain?

stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelium

131

What are Nabothian cysts?

result from secretions obstructing the ducts of the cervical glands

132

What influences the consistency of the mucus in the cervix?

Ovarian hormones

133

What are the three phases of the menstrual cycle? What are the days associated with each?

1. Menstrual phase (1-4 days)
2. Proliferative phase (5-14 days)
3. Secretory phase (15-28)

134

What causes the endometrium to slough off (not the hormonal change)

Decreased blood flow to the area

135

What occurs in the proliferative phase of the mentrual cycle?

Estrogen stimulates development of the functional layer of the uterus

136

What happens in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle?

Progesterone stimulates the synthesis and secretion of glycoproteins by uterine glands

137

What happens in the menstrual phase of menstruation?

Flow

138

What happens to the glands of the endometrium as the secretory phase progresses?

go from simple, straight tubular to spiraled tubular

139

What causes the bleeding seen in menstruation?

Breakage of the spiral arteries

140

What are uterine leiomyomas?

Fibroids--benign neoplasms of smooth muscle origin in the endometrium

141

What are the three types of uterine leiomyomas?

1. Intramural (embedded within the myometrium).
2. Submucosal (deep to the uterine mucosa, bulging into the uterine cavity).
3. Subserosal (deep to the serosa).

142

What happens to uterine leiomyomas?

H. When large and multiple, usually cause abnormally heavy menstrual periods.

143

What are the compliations of pregnancy that result from leiomyomas?

Increased change of miscarriage

144

What type of epithelum comprises the vagina?

a. stratified squamous nonkeratinizing epithelium

145

What comprises the lamina propria of the vagina?

abundant elastic fibers, loose fibroelastic connective tissue, lymphocytes, neutrophils.

146

Are there glands in the wall of the vagina?

No

147

What are the muscular layers of the vagina?

thin inner layer, circular smooth muscle fibers.
- thicker outer layer, longitudinal fibers, continuous with corresponding uterine layer

148

What comprises the adventitia of the vagina?

DCT, thick elastic fibers, venous plexus, nerve bundles