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Flashcards in Lab test 2 Deck (74):
1

The zone of proliferation is characterized by what?

Stacked chondrocytes in hyaline cartilage

2

What is the the next zone of chondro ossification after the zone of proliferation? How does this look compared to the zone of proliferation?

The zone of maturation, where the stacked chondrocytes lacunae increase in size

3

What is the zone after the zone of maturation? How does this appear compared to the zone of maturation?

The zone of hypertrophy, characterized by increased lacunae size, and calcification

4

What is the zone after the zone of hypertrohpy? How does this appear compared to the zone of hypertrophy?

The zone of calcification
No cells, as well as increased calcified cartilage

5

Does calcified cartilage have cells?

No

6

What is the zone after the zone of calcification?

The zone of resorption

7

What is characteristic of calcified cartilage histologically? How does this compare to bone?

It is very basophilic, and will stain lighter than bone

Also, cells are ABSENT

8

Is osteoid acidophilic or basophilic?

Acidophilic

9

Are osteoclasts acidophilic or basophilic?

Acidphilic

10

What are the three characteristics of plasma cells histologically?

1. eccentrically place nuclei
2. clockface/ heterochromatic nucleus
3. Negative golgi

11

How can you distinguish between elastic fibers and reticular fibers?

By the type of cells that surround them

12

How do reticular fibers and elastic fibers appear histologically?

Black fibers that branch

13

Is bone acidophilic or basophilic?

acidophilic

14

Are osteoblasts acidophilic or basophilic? What shape are they? Does their gogli stain well? How will its nucleus appear?

1. Basophilic (ribosomes)
2. Cuboidal shape
3. negtive golgi
4. Euchromatic nucleus

15

Are osteoclasts acidophilic or basophilic? Do they have one or many nuclei?

Acidophilic due to lysosomes
Multinucleated

16

What are the canals that connect Halversian canals?

Volkmann's

17

Is the periosteum acidophilic or basophilic?

acidophilic

18

What type of connective tissue is in periosteum?

Dense, irregular

19

Where in the periosteum are osteoblasts?

In the dark layer on the matrix side

20

Are multipolar neurons acidophilic or basophilic?

Basophilic due to rER

21

What is the nissl substance?

rER

22

How does the axon hillock appear?

Devoid of nissl substance

23

What is the black ring the surrounds some neuron?

The myelin of a Schwann cell

24

How does myelin appear in micrographs?

Black (osmium i think)

25

What type of neurons will you see in a cross section of a dorsal root ganglia?

Pseudounipolar neurons

26

What shape are pseudounipolar neurons? Do they have euchromatic or heterochromatic nuclei? What other basophilic substance do they have?

Oval or round shape
Heterochromatic
Nissl bodies

27

What surrounds the soma of a pseudounipolar neurons?

Satellite cells

28

How are multiple pseudounipolar neurons arranged relative to each other?

in clumps

29

What type of neurons are motor neurons? How does their nucleus appear?

Multipolar
Euchromatic nucleus

30

How do cells aggregate in motor neurons in the ANS?

Dispersed

31

Why are there fewer satellite cells around multipolar nerve cells?

More dendrites

32

Looking at a micrograph, you see a very dark cell body with a single process sticking off of it, followed by a huge branching network from that single process. What type of cell is this?

Purkinje cell in the brain

33

Where are pyramidal cells located? What type of neurons are these?

Cerebral cortex
Motor neurons with multipolar bodies

34

What are the stellate shaped glial cells?

Astrocytes

35

How do Ependymal cells appear? Where are they found? What specialization do they have?

Simple cuboidal/columnar the surround ventricles/spinal cord

Specialization = cili

36

Looking at a micrograph, you see a glial cell that is black, has tiny cellular processes, and a small nucleus. What type of cell is this?

Microglial

37

How do skeletal muscle cell nuclei appear?

Elongated and euchromatic

38

What surrounds muscle fasicles? What is its function?

Perimysium provide nutrients

39

What are the more lightly stained parts of the muscles cells?

I bands

40

What is the black line that lies within I bands?

Z plate

41

What are the dark staining areas in striated muscles?

A bands

42

What are the three features of cardiac muscles?

1. Oval, central nucleus
2. Branching pattern
3. Intercalated disc

43

What are intercalated discs?

Connections between cardiac muscle cells

44

How much vascularity is there in cardiac muscle?

Tons

45

How do nuclei appear in smooth muscle cells?

SUPER elongated (fusiform appearance)

46

Are muscle cells cyptoplasm acidophilic or basophilic?

Acidophilic

47

Are smooth muscle cells striated?

No

48

What is the only muscle type that does not have a centrally located nucleus?

Skeletal muscle

49

What forms the roof of the scal media? The floor?

Roof = vestibular membrane

Floor = Basilar membrane

50

What is produced from the stria vascularis?

Endolymph

51

What is the bone that is on the side of the scala media?

Osseous spiral lamina

52

What is the the lamina that sits above the osseous spiral lamina, and lateral to the scala media?

Spiral lamina

53

What sits below the osseous spiral lamina?

Nerve fibers of the auditory nerve

54

What is the tunnel of corti?

The tunnel within the scala media what sits between the inner and outer phalangeal cells

55

What are the cells lateral and medial to the tunnel of corti?

Inner phalangeal cell (medially)

Outer " " (laterally)

56

What is the cell type that sits above the tunnel of corti?

Inner hair cells

57

What is the large structure that sits medially to the scala tympani and scala media?

Spiral ganglion

58

Where is the stria vascularis located?

Lateral wall of the scala media

59

What sits below the osseous spiral lamina?

Nerve fibers of the auditory nerve

60

Where will the nuclei of the hair cells reside, relative to their supporting phalangeal cells?

Above them

61

What are the inner and outer pillar cells?

The cells that sit in the corners of the tunnel of corti

62

Where is the crista ampularris?

In the semicircular canals

63

What is immediately deep to the cupula of the crita ampularris?

Hair cells

64

Where is the macula found?

In the urticle or the saccule

65

What are unique to the macula?

Otoliths

66

Relaxing of the ciliary body does what to the lens?

Adds tension

67

Contraction of the ciliary body does what to the lens?

Relaxes the lens

68

The apical portion of muller cells produce what?

The outer limiting membrane

69

The basal lamina of muller cells produce what?

The inner limiting membrane

70

What is the muscle that is anterior to the pigmented epithelium?

Sphincter pupillae

71

Where is the epithelial layer of cell in the lens?

On the anterior portion

72

What type of epithelium is on the anterior portion of the lens?

Columnar if developing
Cuboidal if fully developed

73

What is the type of epithelium that comprises the endothelium of the cornea?

Simple squamous

74

What type of muscle does the ciliary body of the eye contain (smooth or skeletal)?

Smooth