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Flashcards in Exocrine glands Deck (57):
1

What are the two categories of galnds?

Endocrine and expocrine

2

What type of tissue are glands derived from?

Epithelial tissue

3

What are endocrine glands?

Glands that synthesize and release hormones into the blood

4

What are exocrine glands?

Glands whose secretions are conveyed in epithelial-lined excretory ducts

5

What significance do glands have in disease?

CA (adenoma/carinoma)

6

How are exocrine glands classified (3)?

by the
1. type of secretion
2. mode of secretion
3. cell numbers

7

What are the four different types of secretions that glands can have?

mucous
Serous
Mixed
Sebaceous

8

What do mucus glands secrete?

Secrete mucinogens, large glycosylated proteins (PAS positive), that when hydrated form a thick (viscous), protective fluid called mucin. Mucin is a component of mucus.

9

What are serous secretions?

Watery enzyme laden secretions (parotid and exocrine)

10

What are mixed gland secretions?

serous and mucous

11

What are sebaceous secretions?

waxy oily substances (skin)

(Sebum)

12

What are the three classifications that glands can have based on their mode of secretion?

Merocrine
Apocrine
Holocrine

13

What is merocrine secretion?

Exocytosis w/o loss of membrane

14

What is the most common mode of secretion?

Merocrine

15

What is apocrine secretion?

Secretory product is released along with apical cytoplasm and apical plasmalemma

(lipids in breast milk)

16

What is holocrine secretion?

When entire cell and its secretory product released

17

What are the two types of classification of glands based on their cellular number?

unicellular
multicellular (organized glands)

18

What stain would be used to identify goblet cells?

PAS (there are glycosylated proteins in mucus)

19

Acinar cells are formed by the formation of what?

Acinus

20

What are two key characteristics of mucus secreting cells?

Pale area where mucus is, and a nucleus pushed/flattened to the periphery

21

What are the two key characteristics of serous cells?

Acidophilic cytoplasm, round nucleus

22

What are the two key characteristics of sebeaceous cells?

Clear cytoplasm
Central, round nucleus

23

What type of cells/proteins are common with acne?

Giant cells
Collagen deposition

24

What are the two major shapes that glands can have? What is the next subdivision?

Acinus
Tubular

Simple/complex

25

What are the two divisions of duct systems?

Simple
Compound

26

What are simple duct systems?

single, unbranched duct conveys secretory product to epithelial surface

27

What are complex ducts?

Branching ducts exist which converge to form a single duct

28

What are intralobular ducts?

Ducts that are found within the lobule of exocrine glands

29

Goblet cells are what type of glands?

Unicellular glands

30

What are the four different types of lobular ducts?

Acinus
Intercalated ducts
Striated ducts
Intralobular ducts

31

What are the two intralobular ducsts?

Intercalated ducts
Striated ducts

32

What are intercalated ducts?

Ducts that run between lobules, and have simple cuboidal cells

33

What is responsible for the striations in the striated ducts?

Mitochondria aranged in a palisade

34

Where are interlobular ducts found?

Between lobes

35

What are myoepithelial cells?

Contractiel cells derived from the epithelium that contain actin and myosin

36

Where are myoepithelial cells found?

Surround the secretory units of many of multicellular glands

37

What is the function of myoepithelial cells?

Contraction of myoepithelial cells expresses the secretion from the gland

38

What are the two types of compound glands discussed in class?

Parotid and submandibular

39

What are the three major identifying factors for striated ducts?

1. Acidophilic
2. Striations
3. nuclei push toward opening

40

What is the parotid gland's classification? What does it secrete?

Compound acinar that is purely serous

41

What are submandibular glands' classification? What do they secrete?

Compound tubuloacinar with mixed scretions (primarily serous)

42

What is the sublingual gland's classification? What does it secrete?

Compound tubuloacinar
Primarily mucus (but also serous)

43

What are serous demilunes?

Artifacts where a cap of serous cells penetrate between the mucus cells? This is due to prep.

44

What is Sjögren syndrome?

Autoimmune disease that causes dry eyes and mouth, and parotid gland swelling

Salivary and lacrimal glands are infiltrated with T cells; glands become fibrotic

45

What are the serological markers for Sjögren syndrome?

Serologic marker antibodies are directed against two ribonucleoproteins: SS-A (Ro) and SS-B (La)

46

What type of gland is the pancreas? What is histologicall unique to it?

Compound acinar

No striated ducts

47

What is the way to differentiate the pancreas and the parotid?

NO striated ducts in the pancreas

centroacinar cells

48

What is the classification of goblet cells?

Unicellular

49

What is the classification of the luminal surface of the stomach?

Multicellular sheet

50

What is the classification of Paraurethral glands?

Simple acinar

51

What is the classification of sebaceous glands?

Simple branched acinar

52

What is the classification of intestinal glands?

Simple tubular

53

What is the classification of sweat glands?

Simple coiled tubular

54

What is the classification of the glands of the stomach hand duodeanal glands?

Simple branched tubular

55

What is the classification of the pancreas and parotid glands?

Compound acinar

56

What is the classification of the bulbouretheral glands?

Compound tubular

57

What is the classification of submandibular and sublingual glands?

Ccompound tubuloacinar