Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (57):
What is a neoplasia?
new (abnormal) growth: growth may be benign or malignant.
What is the suffix used for malignant tumors?
What are fibroma?
benign tumor that is fibrous or developed CT
What are chondroma?
benign growth of hyaline cartilage
What are adenomas?
epithelial cell benign tumor; epithelial cells form a glandular structure or are derived from glandular tissue
What are hemangiomas?
benign tumor of newly formed blood vessels
What are lymphomas?
benign tumor of lymphoid tissue
What are papillomas?
benign epithelial tumor of the skin or mucous membrane (i.e., mucosa) possessing finger-like projections
What are polyps?
benign protrusion from a mucous membrane (i.e., mucosa)
What are sarcomas?
MALIGNANT tumors derived from derivatives of mesenchymal connective tissue (finrotic tumors, chondrosarcomas)
What are carcinomas?
MALIGNANT– tumors derived from epithelial cells
Are mesothelomas or melanomas benign or malignant?
Maliganant--these do not follow the suffix "-oma" rule
What are teratomas?
Tumors derived from more than one germ layer
What does differentiation mean in terms of tumors (well differentiated or poorly differentiated)?
How much tumor cells resemble compared to normal cells both structurally and functionally. (e.g. a well differentiated tumor resembles the surrounding cells)
What is anaplasia?
is a state where tumor cells lack differentiation
In what type of tumors are cells with tripolar spindles found (i.e differentiated or not well)?
Poorly differentiated tumors
What does the term pleomorphism mean?
cells and nuclei are variable in size and shape
What are the four characteristics that anaplastic tumor cells may exhibit?
Abnl nuclear structure
High amount of mitosis
Loss of polarity
What is chracteristic of the abnormal nuclear structure of an anaplastic tumor?
nuclei contain an abundance of DNA and are hyperchromatic; nuclei are also larger than normal with large nucleoli
What is carcinoma in situ?
A carcinoma that is limited to the BL of the epithelium
What generally limits benign tumors' growth?
A fibrous capsule surrounding it
What are the four major ways in which a tumor can spread?
1. Direct seeding
2. lymphatic spread
4. Perineural invasion and spread
What is a common site of metastasis for prostate tumors? Why?
Lumbar spine, d/t vein connection that does not have valves
What is hematogenous spread of a tumor? Where are tumors that spread through this mechanism usually found?
When a tumor spreads through the blood. Lungs and liver are where these are usually found
What is the direct seeding mechanism of CA spread?
When a cancer spreads via growth into a cavity
What are the three areas where tumors spread through the perineural pathway?
What type of differentiation do benign growths usually express? Malignant?
Benign = Well differentiated
Malignant = Poorly differentiated
What is the relative rate of growth of benign tumors? Malignant?
Benign = slow
Malignant = fast or erratic
Do benign growths metastasize?
Where/how do benign tumors usually invade?
Into surrounding tissue in well demarcated masses
Where/how do malignant tumors usually invade other tissues?
Locally invasive, infiltrating the normal tissue
Which types of CA have the highest incidence among men?
Which types of CA have the highest incidence among women?
Which types of CA have the highest death rate among men?
3. Colon and rectum
Which types of CA have the highest death rate among women?
3. Colon and rectum
Where in the prostate does CA usually develop?
The posterior peripheral zone
What are the two antigens that are used to detect prostate CA?
1. Prostate specific antigen (PSA)
2. Prostate serum acid phosphatase (PSAP)
When are CA suppressor genes lost in prostate CA? p53?
suppressor genes = early
p53 = late
The loss of what intercellular junction leads to the malignant spread of prostate and breast CA?
Which quadrant are breast CA usually found?
Almost all breast cancers are what type of cancer?
What are the two broad categories of breast CAs?
a. Carcinoma in situ
b. Invasive carcinoma
75% of lung cancers originate from what parts of the lung?
the primary, secondary, or tertiary bronchi epithelium
What are the four major categoeries of lung CA?
1. Squamous cell carcinoma
3. Small cell carcinoma
4. Large cell carcinoma
Of the four major types of lung CA, which one are associated with smoking?
Squamous cell carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma
What is histologically significant of lung squamous cell carcinoma?
Have large keratin whorls
Of the four major types of lung CA, which one is the most malignant?
Small cell carcinoma
What are the two types of coloretal cancers? Which one is more likely to be malignant?
Sessile--more likely to be malignant
Which layers of the colon form pedunculated tubular adenomas? Villous?
Pedunculated = mucosa and submucosa
Sessile = just mucosa
What is the most frequently involved site of colorectal CAs?
Cecum and ascending
Which side of the intestines are more likely to have CAs?
What do the T, N, and M stand for in staging colorectal CA?
T= tumor size and penetration
N= lymph node involvement
M = metastases
What does Tis mean in the staging system of colorectal CA?
Tumor has not penetrate past the mucosa yet
What does T1 mean in the staging system of colorectal CA?
penetrate the muscularis mucosae
What does T2 mean in the staging system of colorectal CA?
Penetrate into the muscularis externa