Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

Cell and tissue > Neoplasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neoplasia Deck (57):
1

What is a neoplasia?

new (abnormal) growth: growth may be benign or malignant.

2

What is the suffix used for malignant tumors?

-oma

3

What are fibroma?

benign tumor that is fibrous or developed CT

4

What are chondroma?

benign growth of hyaline cartilage

5

What are adenomas?

epithelial cell benign tumor; epithelial cells form a glandular structure or are derived from glandular tissue

6

What are hemangiomas?

benign tumor of newly formed blood vessels

7

What are lymphomas?

benign tumor of lymphoid tissue

8

What are papillomas?

benign epithelial tumor of the skin or mucous membrane (i.e., mucosa) possessing finger-like projections

9

What are polyps?

benign protrusion from a mucous membrane (i.e., mucosa)

10

What are sarcomas?

MALIGNANT tumors derived from derivatives of mesenchymal connective tissue (finrotic tumors, chondrosarcomas)

11

What are carcinomas?

MALIGNANT– tumors derived from epithelial cells

12

Are mesothelomas or melanomas benign or malignant?

Maliganant--these do not follow the suffix "-oma" rule

13

What are teratomas?

Tumors derived from more than one germ layer

14

What does differentiation mean in terms of tumors (well differentiated or poorly differentiated)?

How much tumor cells resemble compared to normal cells both structurally and functionally. (e.g. a well differentiated tumor resembles the surrounding cells)

15

What is anaplasia?

is a state where tumor cells lack differentiation

16

In what type of tumors are cells with tripolar spindles found (i.e differentiated or not well)?

Poorly differentiated tumors

17

What does the term pleomorphism mean?

cells and nuclei are variable in size and shape

18

What are the four characteristics that anaplastic tumor cells may exhibit?

Pleomorphism
Abnl nuclear structure
High amount of mitosis
Loss of polarity

19

What is chracteristic of the abnormal nuclear structure of an anaplastic tumor?

nuclei contain an abundance of DNA and are hyperchromatic; nuclei are also larger than normal with large nucleoli

20

What is carcinoma in situ?

A carcinoma that is limited to the BL of the epithelium

21

What generally limits benign tumors' growth?

A fibrous capsule surrounding it

22

What are the four major ways in which a tumor can spread?

1. Direct seeding
2. lymphatic spread
3. Hematongenous
4. Perineural invasion and spread

23

What is a common site of metastasis for prostate tumors? Why?

Lumbar spine, d/t vein connection that does not have valves

24

What is hematogenous spread of a tumor? Where are tumors that spread through this mechanism usually found?

When a tumor spreads through the blood. Lungs and liver are where these are usually found

25

What is the direct seeding mechanism of CA spread?

When a cancer spreads via growth into a cavity

26

What are the three areas where tumors spread through the perineural pathway?

head/neck
prostate
pancreas

27

What type of differentiation do benign growths usually express? Malignant?

Benign = Well differentiated

Malignant = Poorly differentiated

28

What is the relative rate of growth of benign tumors? Malignant?

Benign = slow
Malignant = fast or erratic

29

Do benign growths metastasize?

No

30

Where/how do benign tumors usually invade?

Into surrounding tissue in well demarcated masses

31

Where/how do malignant tumors usually invade other tissues?

Locally invasive, infiltrating the normal tissue

32

Which types of CA have the highest incidence among men?

1. Prostate
2. lung
3. colon/rectum

33

Which types of CA have the highest incidence among women?

1. Breast
2. lung
3. colon/rectum

34

Which types of CA have the highest death rate among men?

1. Lung
2. Prostate
3. Colon and rectum

35

Which types of CA have the highest death rate among women?

1. Lung
2. Breast
3. Colon and rectum

36

Where in the prostate does CA usually develop?

The posterior peripheral zone

37

What are the two antigens that are used to detect prostate CA?

1. Prostate specific antigen (PSA)
2. Prostate serum acid phosphatase (PSAP)

38

When are CA suppressor genes lost in prostate CA? p53?

suppressor genes = early
p53 = late

39

The loss of what intercellular junction leads to the malignant spread of prostate and breast CA?

E-cadherin

40

Which quadrant are breast CA usually found?

Upper lateral

41

Almost all breast cancers are what type of cancer?

Adenocarcinomas

42

What are the two broad categories of breast CAs?

a. Carcinoma in situ
b. Invasive carcinoma

43

BRCA1/2

breast ca

44

75% of lung cancers originate from what parts of the lung?

the primary, secondary, or tertiary bronchi epithelium

45

What are the four major categoeries of lung CA?

1. Squamous cell carcinoma
2. Adenocarcinoma
3. Small cell carcinoma
4. Large cell carcinoma

46

Of the four major types of lung CA, which one are associated with smoking?

Squamous cell carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma

47

What is histologically significant of lung squamous cell carcinoma?

Have large keratin whorls

48

Of the four major types of lung CA, which one is the most malignant?

Small cell carcinoma

49

What are the two types of coloretal cancers? Which one is more likely to be malignant?

Pedunculated
Sessile--more likely to be malignant

50

Which layers of the colon form pedunculated tubular adenomas? Villous?

Pedunculated = mucosa and submucosa

Sessile = just mucosa

51

What is the most frequently involved site of colorectal CAs?

Cecum and ascending

52

Which side of the intestines are more likely to have CAs?

Left side

53

What do the T, N, and M stand for in staging colorectal CA?

T= tumor size and penetration
N= lymph node involvement
M = metastases

54

What does Tis mean in the staging system of colorectal CA?

Tumor has not penetrate past the mucosa yet

55

What does T1 mean in the staging system of colorectal CA?

penetrate the muscularis mucosae

56

What does T2 mean in the staging system of colorectal CA?

Penetrate into the muscularis externa

57

What does T3 mean in the staging system of colorectal CA?

Penetrated past the serosa